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Chapter 26. Political Experiments of the 1920’s. The Treaty of Versailles. Treaty of Versailles = problems. Germany didn’t want to pay reparations. Germany was Humiliated Some Eastern Europeans didn’t get “self determination”. Postwar Economic Problems.

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chapter 26

Chapter 26

Political Experiments of the 1920’s

treaty of versailles problems
Treaty of Versailles = problems
  • Germany didn’t want to pay reparations.
  • Germany was Humiliated
  • Some Eastern Europeans didn’t get “self determination”
postwar economic problems
Postwar Economic Problems
  • “Normalcy” or a return to 1914 was impossible
  • Millions dead = less consumers and workers
  • War production is difficult to turn into peaceful consumer products
  • Russia refused to pay Tsar’s debts
  • United States became dominant economic power in World, replacing Europe
  • War brought increase in status and power of working class. They built the war machines, they fought the war.
  • Growth of Unions
  • Women worked during the war and earned better treatment and more rights.
  • Women’s suffrage in 1920 in America
the soviet union
The Soviet Union
  • Communist Party controlled Russia from 1917 to 1991.
  • War: Leon Trotsky suppressed internal and foreign dissent.
  • Communists won support by claiming they were for “Peace, Land and Bread.”
  • The Cheka: Secret Police
  • Lenin declared the “Dictatorship of the Proletariat” (he was the dictator)
  • Lost some support when war ended.
the soviet union1
The Soviet Union
  • Peasants started resisting grain requisitions in 1918
  • Strikes in 1920 and 1921
  • Baltic Fleet mutinied in 1921
  • No motivation = no work
  • Lenin retreated from strict Communism in 1921 with the New Economic Policy (NEP).
  • Peasants were allowed to farm for profit. Some small industry and retail was allowed as well.
stalin v trotsky
Stalin v. Trotsky
  • Trotsky led the army during the Revolution.
  • He called for rapid industrialization funded by collective farming. That the farmers should pay to industrialize the country.
  • Argued that the USSR should support communists in other countries.
stalin v trotsky1
Stalin v. Trotsky
  • Stalin had been born into a poor family, had not lived in Western Europe.
  • Built support in the party, was ruthless with his enemies.
  • Pravda (Truth) was the official communist newspaper.
  • Stalin had removed Trotsky from power by 1927, kicked him out of Russia in 1929.
  • Trotsky was murdered in 1940 in Mexico by Stalin’s agents.
the third international aka comintern
The Third International AKA Comintern
  • Soviet Communists created the Third International in 1919 to help create communist revolutions around the world.
  • Twenty-one Conditions, basically you had to acknowledge Moscow’s leadership.
women and family in the ussr
Women and Family in the USSR
  • Communist ideology: everyone is equal, even women.
  • Alexandra Kollontai, Author of Communism and the Family (1918).
  • She argued that men and women should share household work, replace male dominated families with family based on love.
  • Not very realistic in 1918 but became part of Soviet ideology.
women and family in the ussr1
Women and Family in the USSR
  • New laws: nonreligious marriage, easier divorce, illegitimate children treated equal, legal abortion.
  • Govt was still dominated by old men.
  • More access to education, careers.
fascists in italy
Fascists in Italy
  • Benito Mussolini started Fascist Party in Italy.
  • Fascists were: Nationalistic and militaristic. Believed in one strong person being in charge of the country.
  • Antidemocratic, anti-Marxist, antiparliamentary, anti-Semitic.
  • Son of a blacksmith, had been a teacher (!) and laborer.
  • 1912 editor of socialist newspaper
  • 1914 broke away from socialism, supported Italy joining WWI.
  • Started his own newspaper, Il Popolo d’Italia (The People of Italy)
  • Italian war veterans started Fasci di Combattimento (Bands of Combat) in 1919.
  • After WWI
    • economic problems
    • anger at the Treaty of Versailles
    • Socialists
    • Govt ceased to function
  • March on Rome: Mussolini and the Fascists had won seats in chamber of deputies. They had a symbolic March to Rome, wearing their black shirts.
  • King Victor Emmanuel III didn’t stop them.
  • In 1924 Mussolini and the Fascists took over democratically.
  • Once in power they eliminated opposition and democracy.
  • By 1926, Italy was a single party state. Fascists ran the police and used violence against opposition.
  • Leading Socialist Giacomo Matteoti was murdered after criticizing Mussolini.
  • Lateran Accord in February 1929
    • Made peace between the Papacy and Italy
    • Recognized Pope as temporal ruler of Vatican City
    • Italian govt agreed to pay indemnity for confiscated lands.
    • Recognized Catholicism as the religion of the nation
  • Govt tried to encourage women to have babies.
  • Authoritarian govts want more babies, = more soldiers.
  • After WWI the French elected conservative representatives to the Chamber of Deputies.
  • Formed alliances with new countries in the East; Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia.
  • Germany and Russia were isolated so they signed a treaty at Rapallo.
  • In early 1923 France declared Germany to be in default of reparations payments.
  • Raymond Poincare was the PM of France.
  • He sent French troops (With Belgian assistance) to occupy the Ruhr Valley to get the $.
  • Germans went on strike, French sent in replacement workers.
  • France got its money but strained its friendship with Britain.
great britain
Great Britain
  • 1918 Britain gave vote to all men 21 and over, women 30 and over. (1928 made it 21 for both)
  • British economy was bad in 1920’s. Over 10 Percent unemployment.
  • Expanded social welfare programs were created for war widows, unemployed and orphans.
great britain1
Great Britain
  • Govt returned to the Gold Standard in 1925
  • This hurt trade, made British goods more expensive in other countries.
  • Management lowered wages to try to fight inflation, workers were not happy.
  • In May 1926 a country wide strike was held for 9 days in protest.
  • In 1914, the Irish Home Rule Bill passed parliament. It was delayed by WWI.
  • In 1916, Irish Nationalists rose in rebellion. The only war time rebellion in WWI.
  • The British stopped it and executed the leaders.
  • This made the Irish support Sinn Fein or “Ourselves Alone.”
  • Military wing of Sinn Fein became Irish Republican Army.
  • Ireland became a “Dominion” of Britain like Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.
  • Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom.
  • In 1949 it declared itself the independent Republic of Eire.
  • Became independent country for first time in 100 years with Treaty of Versailles.
  • No unity due to cultural differences, parts had been ruled by Austria, Russia, Germany.
  • Many minorities: Jews, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Germans.
  • Josef Pilduski took over in a military coup in 1926, ending Polish Democracy.
  • Was able to remain a Democracy.
  • Thomas Masaryk was leader.
  • In 1938 the great powers chopped up Czechoslovakia to appease Hitler.
  • Then in 1939 did nothing to stop his further aggression as he occupied much of CZ., Poland and Hungary.
  • In 1919 Bela Kun took over and made Hungary a Communist country.
  • The Allies supported a Romanian invasion to remove the communists.
  • In 1932 General Julius Gombos took over, he rigged elections to stay in power.
  • Hungary is associated with Anti-Semitism during this period.
  • 25% of Austrians lived in Vienna.
  • Left leaning Social Democrats and Conservative Christian Socialists fought for control.
  • Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938. (Anschluss)
  • Hitler was born in Austria, they welcomed him as a hero.
the weimar republic
The Weimar Republic
  • After WWI the new constitution was written in Weimar.
  • The militarists and nationalists who had helped cause the war blamed the new republic for the Treaty of Versailles.
  • Constitution allowed for a temporary dictatorship in times of emergency… that’s dangerous.
weimar republic
Weimar Republic
  • Lack of public support, people didn’t want democracy.
  • A coup was attempted in 1920, failed.
  • Germany started printing ludicrous amounts of money to repay the debt.
  • This caused hyper inflation, German money became worthless.
  • In 1923, 1 American dollar was worth 800 Million German Marks.
effects of inflation
Effects of Inflation
  • Middle Class savings, pensions, and insurance policies were wiped out.
  • Ruined banks because mortgages and debts could easily be paid off.
  • People who owned valuable things were ok, Middle Class and Lower Class people suffered the most.
  • People lost all faith in the Weimar Govt. They wanted someone to fix the country and make Germany proud again.
  • Born in Austria, tried to become an artist in 1907, failed.
  • Fought for Germany in WWI, hated Marxism, Jews.
  • Promoted to Corporal and awarded Iron cross for bravery.
  • Lived in Munich after the war. Joined group that became Nazi’s. (National Socialist German Worker’s Party).
nazi party
Nazi Party
  • Wanted
    • eliminate the Treaty of Versailles
    • Unify with Austria
    • Exclude Jews from German citizenship
    • Confiscate war profits
    • Govt control of large businesses
  • Many veterans of WWI supported the Nazis.
political militancy
Political Militancy
  • Stormtroopers or SA were thugs who wore Brown uniforms. They fought and intimidated Nazi enemies.
  • In 1923, Hitler attempted a putsch (Coup) from a beer hall in Munich. (The Beer Hall Putsch). It was crushed and he was sent to prison.
  • In prison he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle). It outlined his political views and goals for Germany.
  • Gustav Stresemann was Chancellor in 1923. He worked to reconstruct the Republic, end the occupation of the Ruhr, introduced a new German currency.
  • Some of the French occupation troops were Black, from their colonies.
  • This became international issue, Germans were insulted and raised racist concerns about Black men sleeping with their White women.
  • 1 Trillion Marks = 1 Rentenmark
  • Resigned and became Foreign Minister until 1929.
dawes plan
Dawes Plan
  • 1924, Charles Dawes proposed that German payments should depend on German economy.
  • French Troops left the Ruhr in 1925.
  • Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg became President in 1925.
locarno agreements 1925
Locarno Agreements 1925
  • Germany and France agreed on the Western border from Treaty of Versailles. Italy and Britain agree to help enforce agreement.
  • (Not Eastern Border)
  • France supported German membership in League of Nations, agreed to leave the Rhineland in 1930.
kellogg briand pact
Kellogg-Briand Pact
  • Renounced War as an instrument of foreign policy.
  • Signed by Japan, United States, European powers.
  • Sounds good but how to enforce it?
  • Frank B. Kellogg: US Secretary of State
  • French Foreign Minister: Aristide Briand
great depression
Great Depression
  • Worldwide Economic Meltdown in 1929
  • Lasted until WWII started