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The CIVIL WAR. Link to You tube. Fort Sumter. Once Lincoln was elected South Carolina seceded followed by six others. Fort Sumter was under siege. If he fights he looks like he started it. If he does nothing he looks week So he sends food.

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fort sumter
Fort Sumter
  • Once Lincoln was elected South Carolina seceded followed by six others.
  • Fort Sumter was under siege.
    • If he fights he looks like he started it.
    • If he does nothing he looks week
    • So he sends food.
  • Jefferson Davis ordered his men to fire on the fort.
  • This is the official start of the war.
fighting begins
Fighting begins…

At the battle of Vicksburg, there were 17 Confederate armies and 22 Union armies from the state of Missouri!

  • Lincoln called for 75,000 troops for 3 months of service.
  • This led to Virginia seceding from the Union. (Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina followed.)
  • 11 States total joined the Confederacy.
  • West Virginia joined the Union.
  • Four slave states stayed in the Union. (Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky and Missouri)
  • North- “Anaconda Plan”
    • Blockade South Coast
    • Take Miss. River and split the Confederacy
    • Capture Richmond (CSA Capital)
  • South
    • Fight a defensive war
    • Make North come to them
    • Won’t take offensive unless forced to


to relieve pressure on the South

  • 1. Population 22,000,000 – (9,500,000 in the South)
  • 2. 92% Manufacturing – Industrial Base.
  • 3. Skilled Labor and management.
  • 4. Capital – 75% of Bank Deposits.
  • 5. Mineral Resources
  • 6. 2 ½ times more R.R.
  • 7. Arsenals
  • 8. Superior Sea Power
  • 9. Established Government.


  • 1. Defensive War.
  • 2. Southern Military Leaders
  • 3. Military Tradition.
  • 4. Shorter Lines of Communication.
  • 5. King Cotton
  • 6. Favored (but not officially ) by the French and British. Why?
bull run 1 st major battle
Bull Run (1st Major Battle)

July 21st, 1861

Embarrassing loss for the union

key changes in warfare during the civil war
Key Changes in Warfare During the Civil War

This is gonna be different!

  • Submarine
  • Armored ships
  • Rifled Bullets
  • Use of telegraph
  • 1st maching gun (not really used)
  • Barb wire
  • Large scale news coverage
in order to understand this you have to understand how previous wars were fought volunteers
In order to understand this you have to understand how previous wars were fought.Volunteers?
during the revolutionary war

During the Revolutionary War

Formations were based upon bayonet charges.

This is because of how muskets worked. Watch, I’ll demonstrate.

but then


A guy named Jean Claude Minie made a tiny change to the musket ball.


In 1855 the U.S. government accepted Minie’s ideas. They could have bought repeating rifles but were afraid they would waste ammo.

but they never changed tactics until years after the war started
But they never changed tactics until years after the war started!!!
  • Death tolls were high because no one considered how the minie ball and other technology would change things.
  • Pickett’s charge at Gettysburg changed that.
eventually changes in tactics were made
Troops were spread out more.

Battlefields became bigger.

Trenches and fortifications became common.

Victories were less decisive.

Battles were longer and harder to win.

As a result, fighting ends in stalemate.

Eventually changes in tactics were made.
so how do you end the stalemate and win the war

So how do you end the stalemate and win the war?

And now for a new question…

Answer: Innovate, change and use new technology better than your opponent. New tactics!!

the north finally gets the upper hand
The North (Finally) Gets the Upper Hand

The Battle of Gettysburg

July 1-3, 1963

  • 3 day battle
  • Usually Lee had the high ground and dug in, this time it is reversed.
  • Ended the threat of a northern invasion by Lee.
  • Picket’s charge.
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
Total War
  • Destroy the enemies will to fight.
  • Burn infrastructure.
    • Railroads
    • Bridges
    • Mills
  • Torch fields, destroy wells
  • Soldiers worry about their families at home.
  • At the end of the war 1/3 of all the Confederate troops had deserted.
grant takes over
Grant takes over
  • Meade did not follow Lee after Gettysburg.
  • He was replaced by Grant (won at Vicksburg on the same day as Gettysburg).
  • Grant has a new view of how to win the war, TOTAL WAR.
  • He and Sherman implement it
"You cannot qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it; and those who brought war into our country deserve all the curses and maledictions a people can pour out. I know I had no hand in making this war, and I know I will make more sacrifices to-day than any of you to secure peace."William T. Sherman in a letter to the mayor and city council of Atlanta.



the Sea

November 15th- December 22, 1864

grant defeats lee in virginia
Grant defeats Lee in Virginia
  • Grant constantly attacked Lee.
  • He lost twice as many men as Lee, but he had more.
  • Newspapers call him “the butcher.”
  • Eventually Lee Surrender’s at Appomattox Courthouse.

April 9th, 1865

Effects of the War
  • The Southern Economy was destroyed.
  • Slavery was abolished, 13th Amendment.
  • Increased the power of the federal government.
  • Income tax, conscription
  • The Northern Economy was booming
lincoln is assassinated
Lincoln is Assassinated

April, 14th, 1865

monitor and the merrimack virginia
Monitor and the Merrimack (Virginia)

March 9th, 1862

This changes



antietam bloodiest single day in american history
Antietam (Bloodiest single day in American History)

September 17th, 1862

  • 26,000 died in one day.
    • As many as in the whole Mexican war!!!
  • South Lost 25% of those


  • McClellan doesn’t follow!!!
    • Lincoln fired him.
  • Leads Lincoln to issue…


Victory, ish

the emancipation proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation
  • Freed slaves in areas in rebellion.
  • Not in slave states still in the Union.
  • Hardened opposition in the South.

September 22, 1862

habeas corpus copperheads conscription
Habeas CorpusCopperheadsConscription

Be sure to read Chap 11 section 3