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Part 1: Materials of Music. Units 1 & 2: Elements of Music & Musical Instruments and Ensembles Download the Musical Examples Here. Chapter 1: Melody. A coherent succession of single pitches. Words / Sentence Highness / Lowness Frequency / Vibration Distance between two different pitches

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part 1 materials of music

Part 1: Materials of Music

Units 1 & 2: Elements of Music & Musical Instruments and Ensembles

Download the Musical Examples Here

chapter 1 melody
Chapter 1: Melody
  • A coherent succession of single pitches.
  • Words / Sentence
  • Highness / Lowness
  • Frequency / Vibration
  • Distance between two different pitches
melody continued
Melody Continued
  • Range: span of melody from highest to lowest note. It can be narrow or wide.
  • Shape: determined by direction of melodic line; like a graph.
more melody
More Melody
  • Movement of melody incorporates either small or large interval jumps.
  • Examples: Conjunct: Disjunct:
  • Phrase: like a phrase in a sentence; a unit of melody within a larger context (period).
  • Period: Like a sentence; usually made up of two phrases.
  • Example of Phrase/Period:
yet more about melody
Yet More about Melody
  • Cadence: resting place or repose; last two notes of melody/ harmony.
  • Rhyme Scheme: like a poem; symmetrical; stanza of poetry.
  • Countermelody: two melodic ideas set against each other simultaneously.
chapter 2 rhythm
Chapter 2: Rhythm
  • Syncopation: upsetting the normal pattern of accentuation.
  • Polyrhythm: duple against triple; triple against quadruple.
  • Additive Meter: combining duple and triple to form asymmetrical meters.
  • Non-metric: without strong pulse or meter.
chapter 3 harmony
Chapter 3: Harmony
  • Simultaneously v. One-at-a-Time; Vertical v. Horizontal
  • Scales: Patterns of Intervals
  • Triad: Stacked thirds
  • Tonality: major v. minor
  • Tonic = “Do”
  • Diatonic v. Chromatic
  • Dissonance v. Consonance
chapter 4 musical texture
Chapter 4: Musical Texture
  • Monophonic: Single voiced
  • Heterophonic: Two simultaneous voices, both melodic with one being an ornamented version of the other.
  • Homophonic: Several voices, one voice melody, and the other voices subordinate harmony in unison rhythm.
texture continued
Texture Continued
  • Polyphonic: many-voiced texture, usually with two or more melodic lines.
  • Counterpoint: (literally note against note) the art of combining two or more melodic lines.
  • Imitation: melody given in one voice and restated in another voice.
  • Canon and round (simplest form of canon): Row, Row, Row your Boat.
more about counterpoint
More about Counterpoint
  • Inversion: Intervals stated upside-down
  • Retrograde: Intervals in melody stated backwards
  • Retrograde Inversion: Intervals stated upside down and backwards
  • Augmentation: melody presented in longer note values
  • Diminution: melody stated in shorter note values
chapter 6 musical form
Chapter 6: Musical Form
  • Repetition versus Contrast: the familiar versus the interesting
  • Variation: falls between repetition and contrast
  • Improvisation: created in performance; the structure is present.
  • Binary Form: A B or Two-Part Song Form
  • Ternary Form: A B A or Three-Part Form
formal elements continued
Formal Elements Continued
  • Theme: building block in the construction of a musical work
  • Thematic Development: elaborating, varying or growing thematic material.
  • Motive: short fragment of a theme
  • Sequence: themes stated higher/lower
  • Call and Response: question and answer
  • Ostinato: short, repetitive pattern that serves as a unifying technique; can be melodic, rhythmic or harmonic.
more about thematic development
More about Thematic Development
  • Passacaglia: continuous variations, usually in triple meter, on a ground bass (melodic line found in bass voice).
  • Chaconne: continuous variations, usually in triple meter, on a chord progression.
  • Movement: complete, comparatively independent division of a large-scale work (like a symphony, concerto, oratorio, etc.)
chapter 7 musical expression tempo and dynamics
Chapter 7: Musical ExpressionTempo and Dynamics
  • Tempo: rate of speed (fast/slow), carrying emotional implications
  • Tempo Markings: in Italian, representing Italian domination during the “Common Practice Period” (Baroque Period from 1600-1750 CE)
tempi continued
Grave: solemn

Largo: broad/very slow

Adagio: quite slow

Andante: walking pace

Moderato: moderately

Allegro: fast/cheerful

Vivace: lively

Presto: very fast

Poco a poco: little by little

Tempi Continued
tempi continued1
Molto: very

Meno: less

Non troppo: not too much

Accelerando (accel.): speed up gradually

Ritardando (rit.): gradually getting slower

A tempo: return to the original tempo

Tempi Continued
  • Pianissimo (pp)
  • Piano (p)
  • Mezzo Piano (mp)
  • Mezzo Forte (mf)
  • Forte (f)
  • Fortissimo (ff)
  • Crescendo
  • Decrescendo/ Diminuendo
  • Sforzando (sfz)
  • Metronome: measures the exact number of beats per minute
  • (Quarter Note = 100)
chapter 8 musical instruments ensembles
Chapter 8: Musical Instruments & Ensembles

Properties of Musical Sound:

  • Pitch: position; how high/low is the vibration?
  • Duration: how long does the vibration continue?
  • Volume: how intense (loud/soft) is the vibration?
  • Timbre: the color of the sound; determined by the type of vibration (lip, reed, string, etc.), material of construction (wood, brass, membrane, etc.), size, or shape.
instruments ensembles continued
Instruments/Ensembles Continued
  • Instrument: a mechanism that generates vibrations (mechanical waves) and sends them out into the air: the human voice and other musical instruments.
  • Register: related to range (highest and lowest notes an instrument can produce); high, middle or low registers on different instruments produce different colors and musical effects.
the human voice
The Human Voice

Men’s Vocal Ranges

  • Tenor
  • Baritone
  • Bass
  • Tenors were popular in operas until the 18th Century, when baritone/bass soloists gained popularity.

*males castrated in youth

Women’s Vocal Ranges

  • Soprano
  • Mezzo-Soprano
  • Alto
  • Women’s ranges were sung by boys and castrati* until the 15th Century.
  • Vibrato: undulations produce forward motion
the human voice1
The Human Voice
  • Luciano Pavarotti – NessunDorma from Turandot
basic musical instruments
Basic Musical Instruments
  • Idiophones: vibrating mechanism is the instrument itself or some part of the instrument.
  • Membranophones: vibrating mechanism is a membrane stretched across the instrument.
  • Aerophones: air column is the vibrating mechanism.
  • Chordophones: a stretched string is the vibrating mechanism.
basic musical instruments1
Basic Musical Instruments
  • Which of these instruments are
    • Aerophones
    • Chordophones
    • Idiophones
    • Membranophones
    • 1234
chapter 9 western musical instruments
Chapter 9: Western Musical Instruments

String Instruments:

  • Violin:
  • Italy
  • Amati
  • Guarneri
  • Antonio Stradivari
  • Soprano/Mezzo-Soprano Voices
  • G, D, A, E
string instruments continued
String Instruments Continued
  • Viola:
  • Larger than Violin
  • Alto Voice
  • C, G, D, A
  • Violin & Viola together
low strings
Low Strings
  • Violoncello, or cello
  • Tenor Voice
  • C, G, D, A

Violin & Cello together

low strings1
Low Strings
  • Double Bass, Bass Viol or Contrabass
  • Bass voice
  • Always doubled unless played pizzicato
  • E, A, D, G
more about strings special effects
More about Strings Special Effects





Double-, Triple- or Quadruple-Stops




Harp / Arpeggio


woodwind instruments
Woodwind Instruments
  • Flute
  • Piccolo
  • Oboe
  • English horn
  • Clarinet
  • Bass Clarinet
  • Bassoon
  • Contrabassoon
  • Saxophone
more brass
More Brass
  • Trombone
  • Euphonium
  • Tuba
percussion instruments
Percussion Instruments
  • Indefinite Pitch
  • Snare/Tenor Drum
  • Bass Drum
  • Cymbals
  • Triangle
  • Tambourine
  • Castanets
  • Gong
  • Definite Pitch
  • Timpani
  • Xylophone
  • Vibraphone
  • Bells
keyboard instruments
Keyboard Instruments
  • Piano
  • Harpsichord
  • Organ
chapter 9 musical ensembles
Chapter 9: Musical Ensembles

Choral Groups

  • Chorus: large body of singers both for religious and non-religious occasions.
  • Choir: smaller body of singers, usually for religious occasions.
  • A cappella: “in church style”; without instrumental accompaniment.
instrumental chamber ensembles
Instrumental Chamber Ensembles
  • Strings
    • String Quartet
    • String Quintet
    • Sextet and Octet
  • Duo Sonatas
  • Trio Sonatas
  • Piano & Strings
    • Piano Trios
    • Piano Quartets
    • Piano Quintets
  • Woodwind Quintets
  • Brass Quintets
  • Baroque
  • Classical
  • Romantic
  • Modern
wind percussion ensembles
Wind/Percussion Ensembles
  • Wind Ensemble/ Concert Band
  • Marching Band/ Drum Corps
  • Jazz Band
  • Rock Band
  • Percussion Ensemble
  • Conductor (Can you name them?)
chapter 10 style and function of music in society
Chapter 10: Style and Function of Music in Society
  • Classical v. Popular
  • Function of Music
    • Religious
    • Civic
    • Entertainment
  • Genres: categories of repertoire
    • Sacred Vocal Music
    • Instrumental Chamber Music
    • Opera
  • Medium: the specific group that performs music
    • Choir
    • Orchestra
    • Piano Trio
    • Opera vocal soloists, choir and orchestra
  • Oral Transmission
transition i hearing musical styles
Transition I: Hearing Musical Styles
  • Melodically-oriented
  • Highly developed system of harmony
  • Style characteristics change from period to period.
  • Conceptualization
  • Forms & Techniques
  • Ideal of Beauty
  • Manners of Expression
  • Cultural Climate
  • Historical Periods:
    • Medieval (400-1450)
    • Renaissance (1450-1600)
    • Baroque (1600-1750)
    • Classical (1750-1825)
    • Romantic (1825-1900)
    • Modern (1900-present)