Who the h#&!! Are the Romans? Rome was a small region in Italy The main powers were the: Etruscans, Oscans, and Greeks.
Who were the Etruscans? Well… They were independent city-states over Northern Italy. “Twelve cities” League, (guess what that was.) 474 B.C. Rome began to take over cities!
Government Etruscans were ruled by Theocracy. This means that the priest ruled the city. Rome on the other hand, was ruled by a king And more importantly, later by a Senate.
Back to Rome Now Rome was busy… making alliances with the other cities Remus and Romulus -Mythical founders of Rome -Both were raised by a she- wolf in the wild. -Romulus killed Remus
Military Originally…the Romans fought using the Greek Phalanx. Then…one day someone thought of something better… the Triple Acies.
Roman becomes a Republic! In 509 B.C. Rome sent their king packing! Replaced him with a republican senate 300 member council of patricians that made laws and served Rome Patricians- aristocracy Plebeians- normal folk
Twelve Tables Formed the basis of the Roman constitution The patricians judged the plebeians harshly In 462 B.C. the Plebeians had the Twelve Tables made so that law was regulated and all knew it Posted in the Roman Forum for all to see
More turmoil… • Romans originally stayed united due to their fear of Carthage • No Carthage– nothing to fear • Senate unable to provide effective leadership. • Patricians become more concerned w/ keeping their power and wealth. • Slave revolts !
Spartacus • 73 BCE • Proclaims war on Rome in attempt to free the slaves. • 2 years of successful revolts • Eventually killed along with 6000 followers.
First triumvirate • 60 BCE- Three army generals unite to rule Rome. • Pompey • Crassus • Julius Caesar • Caesar becomes consul and commands the Roman legions in Gaul. • Conquers Gaul (France) and England. • Pompey gets support from Senate. • Orders Caesar to return home w/out the army. • Caesar invades Rome w/ army and defeats Pompey. • Becomes a “hero of the empire.”
Julius Caesar • Reforms Rome • Reorganized government with him as dictator. • Lowered taxes. • Makes governors responsible to him. • Grants citizenship to conquered peoples. • March 15, 44 BCE- Caesar assassinated • Stabbed in the Senate “Beware the Ides of March.”
Second triumvirate • Mark Antony • Lepidus • Octavian • Created by Mark Antony. • Falls in love w/ Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. • Octavian crushes the combined fleet of Antony and Cleopatra.
Octavian • 31 BCE- creates the Roman Empire • Allows Senate to keep some power, but he would retain sole rulership. • Changes name to Augustus • “honored and majestic” • Takes title of “Caesar” • “first citizen”
The Roman Empire • Augustus gains control of the following: • Military • Takes complete control of • Gives veterans bonuses of land. • Provinces • Supervised all the governors. • Created 28 provinces • Loyalty to Rome • Granted citizenship to more conquered peoples of Europe.