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The Florida Criminal Justice System. Chapter 1. Chapter 1 Outline. Introduction Civic Responsibility Persistent Problems with High School Education Persistent Problem with College Education. Chapter 1 Outline (cont’d). CCJ Students CCJ Mission Statements Overview of the Book.

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chapter 1 outline
Chapter 1 Outline
  • Introduction
  • Civic Responsibility
    • Persistent Problems with High School Education
    • Persistent Problem with College Education
chapter 1 outline cont d
Chapter 1 Outline (cont’d)

CCJ Students

CCJ Mission Statements

Overview of the Book


Myth of the American criminal justice system

Most college graduates take positions in the Florida criminal justice system.

civic responsibility
Civic Responsibility
  • UF Bob Graham Center for Public Service
    • Enhance adult participation in civic activity.
    • Enhance civic education in K–12.
  • The Civic Health Index for 2008 ranked Florida 46th in the nation.
civic responsibility cont d
Civic Responsibility (cont’d)
  • For 2008, Florida ranked:
    • 34th in average voter turnout;
    • 49th in the percentage of citizens who volunteer;
civic responsibility cont d1
Civic Responsibility (cont’d)
  • 48th in the percentage of citizens who attend a public meeting; and,
  • 37th in the percentage of citizens who worked with others to address a community issue.

How bad is it to be “among the worst in the nation?”

  • In 2011, the Hillsborough County Supervisor of Elections:
    • Listed 1,422 registered voters on the USF campus.
    • Only 7 voted in a recent local election!!!
problems with high school
Problems with High School
  • A civics exam administered nationally to high school seniors:
    • 28% graded as “proficient.”
    • 64% graded as “passing.”
high school cont d
High School (cont’d)
  • A U.S. history exam administered nationally to high school seniors:
    • 12% graded as “proficient.”
    • 45% graded as “passing.”
high school cont d1
High School (cont’d)
  • Observations from a national history test:
    • Nearly a quarter of 17-year-olds did not know that George Washington commanded the American army in the Revolutionary War.
    • 40% could not identify the proper half-century in which the First World War took place.
high school cont d2
High School (cont’d)
  • 25% thought Christopher Columbus had landed in the New World after 1750.
  • More than a quarter did not know that it is the Declaration of Independence which declares that all men “are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights.”
high school cont d3
High School (cont’d)

1 out of every 3 Florida high school freshmen will become a drop-out.

Florida ranks 44th in terms of high school graduation rates.

problems with college
Problems with College
  • 36% of all college freshmen signed up for at least one remedial course in 2007–08.
  • 57% of freshmen entering a four-year college in 2002 had graduated six years later.
college cont d
College (cont’d)
  • Findings from Academically Adrift (2011):
    • 45% of the students showed no change in their critical thinking, complex reasoning, and writing skills after being in college for 2 years.
    • The average college student spends about 12 hours a week studying, with 37% saying they put in less than 5 hours a week.
college cont d1
College (cont’d)
  • Students avoided classes that had reading assignments of 40+ pages per week or a written term paper.
college cont d2
College (cont’d)
  • After four years of college:
    • 36% show no gains beyond freshmen CLA tests.
    • Most spend less than 9 hours a week studying alone.
college cont d3
College (cont’d)
  • After four years of college:
    • Over one-third spent less than 5 hours a week getting ready for their classes.
    • The average senior wrote one term paper per year during his or her college stay.
ccj students
CCJ Students
  • The vast majority intend to work in the criminal justice system, most likely the law enforcement sector.
  • Almost a quarter of incoming CCJ students expect to study less than 10 hours a week.
ccj students cont d
CCJ Students (cont’d)

70% expect to study less than 20 hours a week—less than the standard 40-hour work week in the “real world.”

The average CCJ student skips at least one class every other week.

ccj students cont d1
CCJ Students (cont’d)

The average CCJ student spends more time focusing on social, rather than academic, activities.

employer expectations
Employer Expectations
  • Among 265 Florida municipal police departments in 2010, a college degree is not an essential ingredient when hiring new officers.
    • Only one agency (Coral Springs PD) requires incoming sworn personnel to have a four-year college degree.
employer expectations cont d
Employer Expectations (cont’d)
    • Ten police departments in Florida advertise for a two-year college degree.
  • Among 67 Florida county sheriff offices in 2010, a college degree is not an essential ingredient when hiring new deputies.
employer expectations cont d1
Employer Expectations (cont’d)
  • Only two agencies (Collier and Jacksonville SO) require incoming sworn personnel to have a four-year college degree.
  • Only two other SOs require a two-year college degree (Hillsborough and Leon).
employer expectations cont d2
Employer Expectations (cont’d)

Of the 78 jails operated by state, county, private, or sheriff offices in 2010, none require new hires to have any college education.

In short, prospective criminal justice employers are NOT convinced that a college diploma signals a better prepared employee.

mission statements
Mission Statements

A mission statement outlines the institution’s top priorities or goals.

For example, the FSU mission statement states it “is a comprehensive, national, graduate research university that puts research into action for the benefit of our students and society.”

ccj mission statements
CCJ Mission Statements

FAU: “To provide quality graduate and undergraduate education within a liberal arts context and is designed to prepare students for careers in criminal justice or other fields that become attractive to students.”

FGCU: “To prepare students with the skill sets that are in demand by employing, criminal justice agencies.”

ccj mission statements cont d
CCJ Mission Statements (cont’d)

UWF: “To inspire and challenge students, faculty, and staff through a variety of opportunities to achieve personal and professional growth for a lifetime.”

USF: “To provide students with an in-depth exposure to all facets of the criminal justice system . . . . to develop a sound education basis either for graduate work or for professional training.”

ccj mission statements cont d1
CCJ Mission Statements (cont’d)
  • In short, CCJ mission statements have two common themes:
    • Students should become familiar with how the criminal justice system works; and,
    • Students are apprentices preparing for future careers.

Given these pragmatic concerns, why NOT a course devoted to the Florida, as opposed than the generic American, criminal justice system?

the rest of this book
The Rest of This Book

Chapter 2: Florida Crime

Chapter 3: Florida Law Enforcement

Chapter 4: Florida Criminal Law

Chapter 5: Florida Courts

Chapter 6: Florida Corrections

the rest of this book cont d
The Rest of This Book (cont’d)

Chapter 6: Florida Corrections

Chapter 7: The Florida Death Penalty

Chapter 8: Florida Juvenile Justice

Chapter 9: Florida Victims

* * * End of Chapter 1 * * *

florida crime

Florida Crime

Chapter 2

chapter 2 outline
Chapter 2 Outline
  • Introduction
  • The Florida Uniform Crime Reports Program
    • A Word of Caution
  • The Crime Clock
chapter 2 outline cont d
Chapter 2 Outline (cont’d)
  • The Crime Rate
    • Another Word of Caution
  • Crime Trends
    • A Further Word of Caution
chapter 2 outline cont d1
Chapter 2 Outline (cont’d)
  • Crime in Florida Cities
    • Even More Words of Caution
  • Summary

Top 10 States, Serious Violent Crime Rates

introduction cont d
Introduction (cont’d)

Top 10 States, Serious Property Crime Rates

florida ucr program
Florida UCR Program
  • Florida Dept. of Law Enforcement (FDLE)
  • Four program objectives:
    • Gather summary crime data from all law enforcement agencies in the state.
florida ucr program cont d
Florida UCR Program (cont’d)
  • Maintain a statewide database regarding crime.
  • Publish reports analyzing these data.
  • Collect other supplemental crime-related materials.
ucr crime definitions
UCR Crime Definitions

Offers standardized definitions across the country.

Makes comparisons over time possible.

  • The willful killing of one human being by another.
  • Does not include:
    • Deaths caused by negligence
murder cont d
Murder (cont’d)
  • Suicide
  • Accident
  • Justifiable homicides
forcible rape
Forcible Rape
  • The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will.
  • Attempts or assaults to commit rape by force or threat of force are also included.
  • Statutory rape (without force) and other sex offenses are excluded.
    • The taking or attempting to take anything of value.
  • From the care, custody, or control of a person or persons.
  • By force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear.
aggravated assault
Aggravated Assault
  • An unlawful attack by a person upon another.
  • To inflict severe or aggravated bodily injury.
  • Usually accompanied by the use of a weapon or other means likely to produce death or great bodily harm.

Unlawful entry of a structure.

To commit a felony or a theft.

larceny theft
  • Unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession of another.
motor vehicle theft
Motor Vehicle Theft

Theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle.

A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle that runs on land surfaces.

record process
Record Process

Local agencies compile a monthly UCR report.

Local agencies forward these reports to FDLE every 6 months.

FDLE forwards statewide report to FBI.

  • Hierarchical reporting
    • A criminal event is classified according to the most serious crime that occurred.
    • Can produce an undercounting of the actual amount of crimes known to the police.
the crime clock
The Crime Clock
  • Portrays how often crimes occur on a 24-hour basis.
  • See Figure 2.3 [click here]
  • Shortcomings
    • No adjustments for daily/seasonal fluctuations.
crime rates cont d
Crime Rates (cont’d)

2010 Crime Rates

caution cont d
Caution (cont’d)
  • For burglary, the “population at risk” is the number of structures, not people.
  • For motor vehicle theft, the “population at risk” is the number of vehicles, not people.
crime trends
Crime Trends
  • Trend analysis = crime over time

Solid line = Florida; broken line = U.S.

  • Dark figure of crime
  • Two sources:
      • Crimes that are not reported to the police.
      • Crimes that are not recorded by the police.
caution cont d1
Caution (cont’d)

See Figure 2.6 [click here]

  • The FBI warning about ranking areas
    • See Figure 2.7 [click here]
caution cont d2
Caution (cont’d)
  • Other factors to consider in crime rates:
    • Population composition.
    • Influx of commuters.
    • Daily tourist population.

Florida has a substantial crime problem.

Now we can turn our focus to examining how the various segments of the Florida criminal justice system address the concern with crime in the “Sunshine State.”

* * * End of Chapter 2 * * *