series ii order and purpose of the speeches n.
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Series II: ORDER AND PURPOSE OF THE SPEECHES. WELCOME TO DEBATE!. The job of the policy affirmative is to prove that their proposal (which must fit under the resolution) is a good idea. Affirmative vs negative.

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affirmative vs negative

The job of the policy affirmative is to prove that their proposal (which must fit under the resolution) is a good idea.

Affirmative vs negative
affirmative vs negative1

The job of the LD affirmative is to prove that their side of the resolution and its associated value

is the best idea.

Affirmative vs negative
affirmative vs negative2
Affirmative vs negative

The job of the policy negative is to prove that the affirmative proposal is either a bad idea or does not fit under the resolution.

affirmative vs negative3
Affirmative vs negative

The job of the LD negative is to prove that their side of the resolution and its associated values is the best idea.

affirmative vs negative5
Affirmative vs negative

The judge votes for whichever team does a better job of proving their point.

affirmative vs negative7
Affirmative vs negative

Both teams will prepare ahead of time for arguments they might make and prepare to respond to arguments opponents might make.

Filing become important, so you can find arguments quickly.

1a 1n 2a 2n

There are four participants in the policy debate. Each person gives one constructive speech, one rebuttal speech, asks questions once and answers questions

once.

1A, 1N, 2A, 2N
1a 1n 2a 2n1
1A, 1N, 2A, 2N

Each person has a role in the debate. They can be the 1A, 2A, 1N, or 2N.

(First affirmative speaker, Second affirmative speaker, First negative speaker, Second negative speaker).

map of the policy round p 30

1AC (first affirmative constructive)—5 min

  • 1NC (first negative constructive)—5 min
    • CX—2 min
  • 2AC (second affirmative constructive)—5 min
  • 2NC (second negative constructive)—5 min¼
    • CX -2min
  • 1NR (first negative rebuttal)—2 ½ min
  • 1AR (first affirmative rebuttal)—2 ½ min
  • 2NR (second negative rebuttal)—2 ½ min
  • 2AR (second affirmative rebuttal)—2 ½ min
Map of the Policy Round p.30
map of the ld round p 89

AC (affirmative constructive)—3 min

    • CX—1 ½ min
  • NC (negative constructive)—3 ½ min
    • CX -1 ½ min
  • 1NR (first negative rebuttal)—21½ min
  • 1AR (first affirmative rebuttal)—2 ½ min
  • NR (negative rebuttal)2min
  • 2AR (second affirmative rebuttal)—1 min
Map of the LD Round p.89
constructives rebuttals

A constructive is one of the first four speeches. In these speeches, debaters initiate the key arguments that they plan to make.

Constructives & rebuttals
constructives rebuttals1
Constructives & rebuttals

There is a big difference between the first two and last two constructives in policy.

The first two speeches (1AC, 1NC) mostly consist of reading pre-written material and the last two constructives (2AC, 2NC) are written on the spot to counter arguments made by your opponent.

constructives rebuttals2
Constructives & rebuttals

A rebuttal is one of the last four policy speeches.

A rebuttal is the last minute of the LD NC and the last 3 speeches

In these speeches, debaters refute points made by the other side and use logic and evidence comparisons to prove that their core arguments are correct.

They said…

We said in response…

We’re right because…

map of the policy round color coded by person

1AC (first affirmative constructive)

  • 1NC (first negative constructive)
  • CX CX
  • 2AC (second affirmative constructive)—
  • 2NC (second negative constructive)—
  • CX CX
  • 1NR (first negative rebuttal)
  • 1AR (first affirmative rebuttal)
  • 2NR (second negative rebuttal)
  • 2AR (second affirmative rebuttal)
Map of the policy Round (color coded by person)
activity

Activity… I give the four participants name tags that say 1A, 1N, 2A, 2N and have them go through the process of just standing up and announcing what speech they are giving. I have the partners sit together.

  • For this first time, I do not have them actually say anything besides the aff “I support the resolution and my plan is a great idea” and the neg “I think that the resolution is a bad idea and the plan stinks!” I would skip CX for now.
aCTIVITY
when do you write speeches1
When do you write speeches?

TRY VERY HARD TO ONLY USE PREP TIME DURING REBUTTALS!

when do you write speeches2
When do you write speeches?

How can 2 minutes be enough?

Quite a bit of debate work is done ahead of time. During the round, you will need to think of logical points on the spot and put your arguments in order but all of that is facilitated by work done before the tournament.

when do you write speeches3
When do you write speeches?
  • Research is done before tournaments.
  • The 1AC and major components of the 1NC are pre-written.
  • You can write out anything that you like. If you hear an new argument, write answers to it so that you do not need prep next time!
when do you write speeches4
When do you write speeches?
  • Careful filing means that you can find what you need quickly.
when do you write speeches5

Most importantly, all debaters take extensive notes during speeches. This is called flowing. Taking careful notes is absolutely essential to be able to respond to arguments made by the other side (and to remember what you said earlier in the debate).

When do you write speeches?
when do you write speeches6
When do you write speeches?

Learning how to structure these notes will give you an automatic way to organize your speeches.

AND “SIGNPOSTS”

“ROADMAPS”

MAKES FLOWING THIS

EASIER FOR EVERYONE

slide27

The affirmative team lays out their proposal and why they think that their proposal would have advantages over the current system.

significant harms
SIGNIFICANT HARMS

Harms (outlines problems with the current situation)

inherency
INHERENCY

Inherency (factual description of the current situation—points to laws responsible for current problems)

slide30
PLAN

Plan (short statement of what the affirmative team plans to do about the problems they outlined)

Needs to start with the Resolved.

Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase social services for persons living in poverty in the United States.

slide31
PLAN

LET’S SAY IT TOGETHER!!

affirmative case structure

Major Arguments are called CONTENTIONS

The contentions are: Significant/harms, inherency, solvency, advantages (optional)

After Inherency, present the plan

AFFirmative Case Structure
1nc first negative constructive

The negative responds to the 1AC.

There are a variety of ways to respond: On-Case– There is no significant harm. There is no inherency. The plan won’t solve.

Off-case—Topicality, disadvantages, counterplan. These arguments stem from

the plan.

1NC (first negative constructive)
1nc first negative constructive1
1NC (first negative constructive)

Your basic strategy is to demonstrate that the problems caused by the affirmative plan (disadvantages) are more substantial than the benefits of the plan (advantages).

THESE ARE ALSO CALLED DISADS OR D.A.’S

1nc first negative constructive2
1NC (first negative constructive)

To do this, you need to both respond to the affirmative case

THIS IS CALLED ON CASE (becauseit attacks the CASE arguments) or SHIPS

1nc first negative constructive3
1NC (first negative constructive)
  • and demonstrate that it would cause substantial problems.

This is called off case b/c you’re off the SHIPS

2ac second affirmative constructive

The main goal of the 2AC is to respond to all of the arguments made in the 1NC.

The 2AC needs to go point by point and respond to each of the case arguments.

The 2AC also needs to go to each off case argument, group the position, and respond to the argument.

2AC (Second affirmative constructive)

AGAIN- THIS IS WHERE SIGNPOSTING AND ROADMAPS ARE ESSENTIAL!

2ac second affirmative constructive1
2AC (Second affirmative constructive)

Most of the 2AC is original but you can write out arguments that you would like to use ahead of time.

Look at each DA in the packet and pick out arguments that you would like to make in response.

2ac second affirmative constructive2
2AC (Second affirmative constructive)

Remember that you made arguments in the 1AC that will be applicable. Extend any 1AC arguments that will help you beat negative positions—there is no sense reading cards that repeat earlier ones.

slide42

2NC (2ND NEGATIVE CONSTRUCTIVE )

1NR (1ST NEGATIVE

REBUTTAL)

  • These two speeches are the only ones given by the same side back-to-back. It is nicknamed the “negative block.”
2nc second negative constructive 1nr first negative rebuttal
2nc (second negative constructive) & 1NR (first negative Rebuttal)
  • Your job is to respond to each argument made by the 2AC on the positions that you plan to extend.
2nc second negative constructive 1nr first negative rebuttal1
2nc (second negative constructive) & 1NR (first negative Rebuttal)
  • Your goal is to continue to defend a winning package

(such as a DA and case defense, so that you can argue that the DA outweighs the case in the 2NR).

2nc second negative constructive 1nr first negative rebuttal3
2nc (second negative constructive) & 1NR (first negative Rebuttal)
  • After the 2AC but before CX (so that the 2N uses CX as productive prep time), the negative team should take a moment of prep to discuss who will extend which argument.
2nc second negative constructive 1nr first negative rebuttal4
2nc (second negative constructive) & 1NR (first negative Rebuttal)
  • Keep in mind that the 1NR has less time to speak but more time to prepare—it is often wise to give them the argument that will be the most prep intensive.

NOW IS NOT THE TIME TO BE SLOW!!

NOM NOM

1ar first affirmative rebuttal1
1AR (first affirmative rebuttal)

The 1AR does not have to extend every 2AC argument--there simply will not be time!

Instead, focus on arguments that you are both ahead on and that will win you the debate.

For instance, winning that the affirmative does not link (will not cause) the disadvantage is much more important than winning a nit-picky point.

2nr second negative rebuttal

The goal of the 2NR is to extend a winning package. If you prove that the aff plan is, on balance, a bad idea, then the judge will vote negative.

2NR (second negative rebuttal)

THIS IS WHERE YOUR “OVERVIEW” COMES IN

2nr second negative rebuttal1
2NR (second negative rebuttal)

You should begin with this overview that explains why the impact of the DA outweighs the case.

ESSENTIALLY, WE STACK MORE BODIES BECAUSE…

2nr second negative rebuttal2
2NR (second negative rebuttal)

Refute every 1AR argument made on the DA and case arguments that you wish to extend.

This is where you point out dropped arguments and how you answered the aff’s case.

REMEMBER! When you extend you have to say HOW it outweighs

2ar second affirmative rebuttal
2AR (second affirmative rebuttal)
  • The goal of the 2AR is to extend a winning package. If you prove that the aff plan is, on balance, a good idea, then the judge will vote negative.
2ar second affirmative rebuttal1
2AR (second affirmative rebuttal)

You can also point to impact take outs and non-links

  • You should begin with an overview that explains why the impact of the case outweighs the DA.
2ar second affirmative rebuttal2
2AR (second affirmative rebuttal)

THIS IS WHERE YOUR “OVERVIEW” COMES IN

  • Build on previously made affirmative arguments. You do not need to win every point but you do need to a) win arguments that defeat the DA, and b) prove that your case is a good idea.
activity1

In the mean time, can we have four more volunteers to give each speech?

    • 1AC: Make a statement about why the federal government should provide health care to persons living in poverty.
    • 1NC: Refute the point made by the 1AC and make an additional point about why the plan is too expensive.
    • 2AC: Defend the point made in the 1AC and answer the expense argument made by the 1NC.
    • 2NC: Continue the attack on the 1AC.
    • 1NR: Continue supporting your additional point about why the plan is too expensive.
    • 1AR: Respond to the previous two negative speeches.
    • 2NR: State why your arguments are more correct than theirs and why the judge should vote for you (and avoid spending too much money).
    • 2AR: State why your arguments are more correct than theirs and why the judge should vote for you (and help the poor even if it is expensive).
aCTIVITY
ld speaker by speaker

First Affirmative speech

(P. 91)

To lay out the most

important value, how that

side of the resolution

provides that value, and

the criteria by which values

should be judged.

LD speaker by speaker
ld speech by speech
Ld SPEECH BY SPEECH
  • NEGATIVE CONSTRUCTIVE:
  • *(p. 91)
  • To lay out the most
  • important value, how that
  • side of the resolution
  • provides that value, and
  • the criteria by which values
  • should be judged.
  • * To begin to refute the Affirmative. (to equalize time)
1ar first affirmative rebuttal2
1AR (first affirmative rebuttal)

In a very short period of time, the 1AR needs to address all of the major negative arguments and refute the attacks the negative has made on their case.

Cross-apply

Extend

Group

negative rebuttal
Negative Rebuttal

The goal of the NR is to extend a winning package. If you prove that the aff:

*isn’t as valuable of a value

**doesn’t actually provide their value

***is outweighed by other problems/your value

****doesn’t meet the criteria set out to judge the values

=then you should win

To do this, you can’t ignore arguments.

second affirmative rebuttal
Second Affirmative Rebuttal

The goal of the AR is to extend a winning package. If you prove that the neg:

*isn’t as valuable of a value

**doesn’t actually provide their value

***is outweighed by other problems/your value

****doesn’t meet the criteria set out to judge the values

=then you should win

To do this, you can’t ignore MAJOR arguments. But you can’t argue everything, so focus on the most important arguments you can win.

cross examination period
CROSS-EXAMINATION PERIOD.
  • During the questioning period, both opponents face the judge.  The questioner shall control the use of time during the period and shall only ask questions.  Questioners may not comment on the answers or make any statements of their own views during the cross-examination period. 
purpose of cx period
PURPOSE OF CX PERIOD
  • 1)    ask for information to gain clarification and understanding;
  • (2)    set up strategies to use in developing further argumentation; and
  • (3)    discover fallacies or inconsistencies in opponent's argumentation.
what about cross examination1
What about cross-examination?

Make up cross-examination questions on the spot. If you get totally stuck, you can always ask the other side to clarify their arguments. It might not be an exciting exchange but it will fill the 2 minutes while your partner is preparing to give a speech.

YOU MUST USE ALL OF THE CX TIME!! SO YOUR PARTNER CAN PREP!

slide66

Imagine having someone describe a football game to you if you had never seen a ball or the field, let alone an actual game.

INFORMATION OVERLOAD?!

slide68

The best way to learn is by actually doing it. People learn a TON from participating.

INFORMATION OVERLOAD?!