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Abnormal Psychology. The diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. Criteria for disordered behavior. Distress Are they upset about their behavior? Deviance Is their behavior outside of what is culturally normal? Dysfunction

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Abnormal Psychology


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    1. Abnormal Psychology The diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders

    2. Criteria for disordered behavior • Distress • Are they upset about their behavior? • Deviance • Is their behavior outside of what is culturally normal? • Dysfunction • Does their behavior interfere with or impair daily functioning? Do they have a job? Normal relationships? • Danger • To themselves or others; made threats to harm themselves or harm others

    3. History of mental illness • People presumed that maladaptive behavior was due to: • Lunar cycles (“full moon brings out the crazy”) • Evil spirits (possession) • People with god-like powers (witches) • Placed great emphasis on exorcising demons • “Therapies” included: • Beatings • Burnings • Castration • Pulling teeth • “Cauterizing” or burning of the clitoris • Transfusions of animal blood or removal of ones own blood to restore “a balance of the humors”

    4. History of Mental Illness • Medical model- the assumption that mental illness is a sickness • Mental illness is diagnosed by its symptoms and cured through therapy which may or may not include treatment in a psychiatric hospital • More recently the field of psychology has moved towards the medical perspective because????? • Cant argue genetics/biology. It’s a natural science with LAWS instead of THEORIES which are debatable and subject to interpretation

    5. Bio-psycho-social Approach • Disordered behavior is a combination of various factors that stem from: • Genetic predisposition (Bio) • Stress, trauma, environ. issues (psycho) • Social expect., norms, environ. issues (social)

    6. Bio Psycho Sociological Approach

    7. Classifying Psychological Disorders • DSM IV TR • Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. (text revision) • Benefits of diagnostic labeling include: • A uniform method of identifying/classifying maladaptive behavior • Introduces a homogenized method of effective treatment • Encourages appropriate research to identify causality

    8. Critics of the DSM IV TR and diagnostic labeling cite: • DSM views almost every behavior as abnormal in some capacity • Leads to over/misdiagnosis of “normal” people • Stigmatizing power of labels • Perceive people differently that have been diagnosed with a mental disorder • Instead of perceiving mental illness as a disease of the brain its viewed as a fault in character • Diagnostic labeling can also alter reality in that the “victim” becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy

    9. Schizophrenia

    10. Schizophrenia • Out of touch with reality • Two or more of the following during a one month period • Positive Symptoms (an ADDITION to your sensory experience) • Delusions • Hallucinations • Disorganized speech • Disorganized or catatonic behavior

    11. Negative Symptoms • Negative Symptoms (a LOSS or defect of your sensory experience) • Alogia • Decrease in speech or speech content (empty or absent replies) • Flat affect • Show little to no emotions • Avolition • Apathy or feeling drained of energy • Social withdrawal • Distancing oneself from their environment and becoming preoccupied with their ideas and fantasies

    12. Schizophrenia • The onset of schizophrenia usually happens in late adolescence and in the early 20’s • 1% of the population is schizophrenic • More positive symptoms Type I • More negative symptoms Type II • Males tend to get it earlier; gender ratio is 1:1 • Drug use can “spark” schizophrenia; especially hallucinogens

    13. Pathology • Enlarged brain ventricles, underdeveloped frontal area of the brain (mostly Type II) • Excessive sensitivity to dopamine • Prenatal exposure to influenza virus during the second trimester of pregnancy • Overwhelming biological evidence linking schizophrenia

    14. Types of Schizophrenia • Catatonic schizophrenia • More catatonic behavior than anything else • Paranoid schizophrenia • More delusions than anything else • Disorganized schizophrenia • More disorganized speech than anything else • Undifferentiated schizophrenia • Waste bin of schizophrenia

    15. Delusions • Delusions are false beliefs • Delusions of persecution • Threats of harm from someone • Delusions of reference • Assumptions that outside stimuli is being sent to you about ways to live your life • Delusions of control • Assume others are controlling you through some form of telepathy • Delusions of grandeur • Thoughts that you are an important person or figure ex. Hitler, Satan, Jesus, Virgin Mary, etc.

    16. Disorganized Speech • Neologism • Made up words ex. hexklemp • Perseveration • Saying the same word over and over • Clanging • Rhyming words into an incoherent phrase • “He raged at the hypocrisy of aristocracy democracy!!” • Word salad • Tossing words in randomly; jibberish • Loose associations • Bouncing from one topic of conversation in an incoherent fashion

    17. Hallucinations • Hallucinations are false perceptions within your senses • Auditory hallucinations are by far the most common • Hear sounds and voices that come from outside their heads • Auditory hallucinations are most likely to occur during times of idleness or inattention • Visual hallucinations • Vague perceptions of color; seeing people or objects that aren’t there • Tactile hallucinations • Tingling, burning, electrical shock sensations, or bugs crawling all over one’s body or beneath the skin • Somatic hallucinations • An organ shifting inside the body or a snake inside one’s stomach

    18. Catatonic behavior • Catatonic stupor • Totally unaware of and unresponsive to their environment • Catatonic rigidity • Maintaining rigid, upright posture for hours and resisting efforts to be moved • Catatonic posturing • Assuming awkward bizarre positions for long periods of time • Catatonic excitement • Hyperactivity, uncontrollable wild behavior; wildly waving arms and legs

    19. Treatments for Schizophrenia • Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) • Patient is shocked with up to 100 volts of electricity • SIDE EFFECTS: memory loss, extremely painful, clinicians don’t know why it works • Convulsive Therapy • Drugs are administered to cause a seizure to “re start” the brain ending hallucinations and delusions • SIDE EFFECTS: clinicians don’t know why it works, kidney and liver damage

    20. Phenothiazines (Anti psychotic medication) • Haldol, Thorazine, Mellaril • A derivative of antihistamines; diminish positive symptoms and negative symptoms with time • SIDE EFFECTS: tardive dyskinesia (uncontrollable shaking), dystonia (involuntary muscle contractions, uncontrollable movement of the face, neck, & tongue), diminished sexual activity, nausea

    21. Bipolar Disorder

    22. Bipolar Disorder

    23. Mania • Mania- a distinct period of abnormally elevated mood, lasting at least 1 week • 3 or more of the following • Inflated self esteem • Decreased need for sleep • More talkative than usual • A flight of ideas or thoughts are racing • Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (ex. Excessive gambling) • Maniacs tend to be hypersexual or drink to come down from a manic episode • Men tend to present as manic; females present as depressive and have more dep. Episodes, men =

    24. Depression • 5 or more of the following in a 2 wk period • Depressed mood most of the day nearly every day • Diminished interest • Significant weight loss or decrease in appetite • Insomnia or loss of energy • Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide

    25. Treatments • Lithium to delay or prevent episodes of mania and depression • SIDE EFFECTS: Nausea, impaired kidney function, vertigo, muscle weakness • For 20-40% of manic depressives lithium doesn’t work so we treat the mania (anti convulsives) and depression (anti depressants) separately

    26. Bipolar Disorder • Whites tend to be more at risk than minorities • Native Americans also have a higher risk than other minorities • 1% of the population is manic depressive • Effects men and women equally • 15% commit suicide • Artists, writers, poets and musicians show a higher incidence of manic depression • Strong genetic link; tends to run in families

    27. Anxiety Disorders • Most common disorders in the US • 15-17% of the US population suffer • Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Phobia • Panic disorder • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder • Post Traumatic stress Disorder • Social Anxiety Disorder

    28. Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Excessive anxiety or worrying about numerous events or activities • Sufferers live in a constant state of fear and dread • Women outnumber men 2:1 • Typically called “worriers”

    29. Symptoms • Restlessness • Fatigue • Difficulty concentrating • Irritability • Muscle tension • Insomnia

    30. GAD • As job income decreases the incidence of GAD increases • SSRI’s (Select Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) are the most common treatment • Prozac • Paxil • Zoloft

    31. Phobia A persistent unreasonable fear of particular objects, activities, or situations

    32. Phobia • Are different from everyday fears • Phobic fear is more intense and persistent • The desire to avoid the object or situation is more compelling (stronger) • Phobic fear interferes with personal, social, and occupational functioning

    33. Phobia • DSM IV criteria • Marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable. Cued or caused by the presence or anticipation of the specific object or situation • Exposure to the phobic stimulus provokes an immediate response • The person recognizes that the fear is unreasonable • Avoidance, anxious anticipation or distress interferes with normal functioning

    34. Phobia • 10-15 million in the US suffer • The most common phobias fall into 1 of 5 categories or FAMILIES • Blood born or injection • Animal • Natural environment • Situational • other

    35. Phobia • 2:1 female to male • The earlier the onset the easier to cure • Tends to run in families

    36. Treatments • Flooding • Forcing a subject to come in contact with the phobic stimulus • Systematic Desensitization • Slowly exposing the subject to the phobic stimulus to extinguish the fear • High risk for re-traumatization with flooding; but its quicker • Systematic Desensitization takes more time