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直銷通路管理報告 指導教授 ﹕ 陳得發教授 學生 : 王昭雄 學號 ﹕ 8941812 ä¸­è¯æ°‘åœ‹ä¹åä¸€å¹ PowerPoint Presentation
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直銷通路管理報告 指導教授 ﹕ 陳得發教授 學生 : 王昭雄 學號 ﹕ 8941812 中華民國九十一å¹

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直銷通路管理報告 指導教授 ﹕ 陳得發教授 學生 : 王昭雄 學號 ﹕ 8941812 ä¸­è¯æ°‘åœ‹ä¹åä¸€å¹ - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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An Exploratory Investigation of Voice Characteristics and Selling Effectiveness by Robert A. Peterson, Micheal P. Cannito and Steven P. Brown. 直銷通路管理報告 指導教授 ﹕ 陳得發教授 學生 : 王昭雄 學號 ﹕ 8941812 中華民國九十一年五月二十九日. Abstract.

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8941812

An Exploratory Investigation of Voice Characteristics and Selling Effectivenessby Robert A. Peterson, Micheal P. Cannito and Steven P. Brown

直銷通路管理報告

指導教授﹕陳得發教授

學生:王昭雄

學號﹕8941812

中華民國九十一年五月二十九日

abstract
Abstract
  • An exploratory investigation of selected voice characteristics of 21 direct salespeople revealed that rate of speaking, average pause duration, and fundamental frequency contour were significantly related to a measure of output sales performance.
  • Relative to a comparison group of 13 nonsalespeople, the salespeople spoke more rapidly and produced fundamental frequency contours that fell more.
introduction
Introduction
  • The purpose of the present research was to explore possible relationships between selected voice characteristics and output sales performance in the context of a personal selling situation.
  • A secondary purpose was to explore possible relationships between the voice characteristics of a sample of salespeople and consumers’ perceptions regarding the salespeople.
background hypotheses
Background Hypotheses
  • The review focuses on three categories of voice characteristics: speaking rate, fundamental frequency, and variability in voice intensity (loudness)
  • speaking rate:

refer to the number of utterances per unit of time,it is a function of articulation rate and the number and duration

  • fundamental frequency:

Measurements typically used to characterize fundamental frequency include its mean, variability, and contour.

  • variability in voice intensity (loudness):

Research indicates that dominance, assertiveness, and aggression are convey loud voices.

slide5

振幅(Amplitude):圖一振幅指的是聲波的強度,振幅大小的改變,就是我們人振幅(Amplitude):圖一振幅指的是聲波的強度,振幅大小的改變,就是我們人

類聽覺中所認知得“大聲或小聲” ,國際上對於振幅的通

用單位是dB,也就是分貝,而人類的聽覺範圍通常是

-1/4dB~140dB。頻率(Frequency):圖二頻率指的是1秒時間中有多少個聲波產生,頻率的改變就

是我們聽覺中所認知的“高音或低音”,國際上對於頻率的

單位是Hertz(Hz,赫茲) 人類能夠聽到的頻率通常在

20Hz~2000Hz ,20Hz 就是指每秒中有20個完整聲波產

生的聲音能量,2000Hz 就是2000個,而發生物體震動的

次數越頻繁,頻率也就越高,聲調也就越高。 我們在圖一和圖二所看到的是單一的正弦波形,事實上在日常生活中所聽到的聲音和樂器所發出的波形,都是許多頻率混合在一起的混合波形,例如我們聽到的人聲,和鋼琴單鍵所發出的聲音,都是結合了許多頻率的混合波形,而每一種聲音,都有他自己唯一的一種波形。

hypotheses
Hypotheses

Speaking rate:

H1: Salespeople with faster speaking rates will exhibit higher output

performance (i.e., sell more) than salespeople with slower speaking rates.

Fundamental frequency:

H2a: Salespeople with lower fundamental frequencies will exhibit

higher output performance than salespeople with higher

fundamental frequencies.

H2b: Salespeople with larger fundamental frequencies variability will exhibit

higher output performance than salespeople with smaller fundamental

frequency variability.

H2c: Salespeople with falling fundamental frequencies contours will exhibit

higher output performance than salespeople with rising fundament

frequency contours.

Variability in voice intensity (loudness):

H3: Salespeople with more variability in their voice intensities will exhibit

higher output performance than salespeople with less variability in their

voice intensities.

method
Method
  • Acoustic data derived from audio tape recordings of presentations made by salespeople were obtain and correlated with a measure of output sales performance to test the formal hypotheses.
  • A sample of housewives listened to the taped sales presentations and reported their perceptions of the salespeople base on the presentation.
slide9

Variables

  • Output sales performance
  • Vocal behavior (acoustic) variables

1. Total speaking time (TST) --H1

2. Average pause duration ( PSDUR)

3. Mean fundamental frequency (MFF) --H2a

4. Fundamental frequency variability (FFV) --H2b

5. Fundamental frequency contour (CNTOUR) --H2c

6. Loudness variability (LOUDVAR) --H3

slide11

Perceptions of Vocal Behavior

  • A sample of 26 housewives listened to the tape-recorded target presentation of each salesperson and evaluate the salesperson in several rating scales.
  • Comparison Group
  • A comparison group of 13 college males with average age equal to that of the salespeople was asked to role-play the part of a salesperson and make the same presentation.
slide12

Analysis

1. Total speaking time (TST) --H1

2. Average pause duration ( PSDUR)

3. Mean fundamentalfrequency(MFF) --H2a

4. Fundamental frequency variability (FFV) -H2b

5. Fundamental frequency contour (CNTOUR) -H2c

6. Loudness variability (LOUDVAR) --H3

H2a

H2b

H1

H3

H2c

conclusions
Conclusions
  • How a sales message is communicated may be as important as what is communicated with respect to output sales performance
  • The result suggest that salespeople should consider utilizing falling fundamental frequency contours wherever appropriate and consider having at least a modicum of variability in their voice’s fundamental frequency
  • Salespeople attractiveness is positively related to favorable consumer perceptions as well as effective selling, and that the effect of attractiveness is greatest on initial buyer impressions (Reingen and Kernan 1993).
limitations and future research
Limitations and Future Research
  • By design the findings cannot be generalized to female salespeople or personal selling in industrial or fixed-location retailing contexts.
  • The limitation of the present investigation was that, because of its exploratory nature, it did not attempt to explain why the observed relationships occurred. To do so would require some sort of experiment design.
  • In future research it is imperative that theoretical explanations regarding themechanism and mediating variables through which voice characteristics operate be developed and empirically tested.