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University of Flensburg/Germany International Institute of Management Energy and Environmental Management in Developing Countries (former SESAM) MEng (Industrial Engineering). Energy in Germany. Presentation at UWI Jamaica .2009. August Schläpfer Wulf Boie. www.iim.uni-flensburg.de/sesam.

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University of Flensburg/GermanyInternational Institute of ManagementEnergy and Environmental Management in Developing Countries(former SESAM)MEng (Industrial Engineering)

Energy in Germany

Presentation at

UWI

Jamaica

.2009

August Schläpfer

Wulf Boie

www.iim.uni-flensburg.de/sesam

sesam@uni-flensburg.de

energy consumption in germany
Energy Consumption in Germany
  • The German economy is large and developed
    • Fifth in the world by GDP
  • Germany consumed the fifth most energy per capita in the world in 2004
  • In 2007, Germany consumed 472 million tons of coal equivalents
  • The consumption is divided up as follows:
    • Mineral oils 33.8%
    • Natural gas 22.7%
    • Hard Coal 14.1%
    • Nuclear energy 11.1%
    • Lignite11.7%
    • Renewables6.6%

http://www.euronuclear.org/info/encyclopedia/p/pri-con-ger.htm

University of Flensburg

Energy and Environmental Management

energy imports
Germany depends on energy imports higher than the average EU-27

Electricity generation is based primarily on coal and nuclear energy, with growing shares of natural gas and renewable sources

2004 Net Imports Imports by Energy Product

Energy Imports

http://ec.europa.eu/energy/energy_policy/doc/factsheets/mix/mix_de_en.pdf

University of Flensburg

Energy and Environmental Management

german renewable energy act guaranteed purchase of renewable energy
German Renewable Energy Act: Guaranteed Purchase of Renewable Energy

Grid Operators

SupplyRenewableElectricity

Private Investors

Renwable Energy

Plants

Pay Feed In Tariff

SupplyRenewableElectricity

as share of Electricity Mix

Electricity

Suppliers

Reimburse Feed In Tariff

Equalize and balance quantities of RE

SupplyRenewableElectricity

as share of Electricity Mix

Electricity

Consumers

Reimburse Feed In Tariff

as part of electricity tariff

University of Flensburg

Energy and Environmental Management

german renewable energy act feed in tariffs 2009
German Renewable Energy Act:Feed-In Tariffs (2009)

Guaranteed for 20 years, degressions for installation after 2009

University of Flensburg

Energy and Environmental Management

german renewable energy act impact on electricity tariffs
German Renewable Energy Act:Impact on Electricity Tariffs

Added cost of feed-in tariff

1.1 ct

Added cost of feed-in tariff

0.1 ct

Electricity tax

2.0 ct

Value Added Tax

3.4 ct

Concession fees

1.8 ct

Generation,Transmission, Marketing

13 ct

  • Included in generation/transmission cost: 0.4-0.8 ct for additional control energy
  • Fraunhofer Institute: Reduction of market price due to wind energy: 0.95 ct/kWh

University of Flensburg

Energy and Environmental Management

german renewable energy act impact

6.3%

German Renewable Energy Act:Impact

15.1%

Large share of renewable energy plants in Germany owned by individual farmers, households, groups of individuals:

Solar PV

Wind

Biogenic waste

Biomass

Hydropower

  • 90 % of windfarms in North Frisia owned by groups of citizens
  • 80 % of biogas plants in Germany below 500 kWel, 17% owned by cooperatives
  • Most PV plants roof mounted, owned by households, farmers, communities

University of Flensburg

Energy and Environmental Management

german renewable energy act impact on environment and economy
German Renewable Energy Act:Impact on Environment and Economy
  • Climate: 72 million t CO2eq.. savings in 2008
  • Fossil fuel import: 1 billion € savings in 2007 (mainly coal and natural gas)
  • Economy: Total turnover of the RE sector: 28.8 Billion € in 2008

University of Flensburg

Energy and Environmental Management

german renewable energy act impact on regional development
German Renewable Energy Act:Impact on Regional Development
  • Employment: 278 000 people working in the German RE sector in 2008

Example Northern Schleswig Holstein (360 000 inhabitants): 9500 directly and indirectly employed by wind energy sector in 2003

  • Local income from energy sales if RE plants are locally owned

Example North Frisia (167 000 inhabitants): approx. 30 Million €/year net income from energy sales

  • Tax income: Operators of RE plants pay local business tax to communities

Example North Frisia (167 000 inhabitants): 676 MW wind capacity, 9,1 mio income from business tax

University of Flensburg

Energy and Environmental Management