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Lecture 4: Power Provisioning. Prof. Fred Chong 290N Green Computing. Power Provisioning. $10-22 per deployed IT Watt Given 10 year depreciation cycle $1-2.20 per Watt per year Assume $0.07 per kilowatt-hr and PUE 2.0 8766 hours in a year (8766 / 1000) * $0.07 * 2.0 = $1.22724

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lecture 4 power provisioning

Lecture 4: Power Provisioning

Prof. Fred Chong

290N Green Computing

power provisioning
Power Provisioning
  • $10-22 per deployed IT Watt
  • Given 10 year depreciation cycle
    • $1-2.20 per Watt per year
  • Assume $0.07 per kilowatt-hr and PUE 2.0
    • 8766 hours in a year
    • (8766 / 1000) * $0.07 * 2.0 = $1.22724
  • Up to 2X cost in provisioning
    • eg. 50% full datacenter = 2X provisioning cost
workloads
Workloads
  • Websearch – high request throughput and large data size
  • Webmail – high I/O
  • Mapreduce – large offline batch jobs
time at power level
Time at Power Level

80 servers

800 servers

8000 servers

oversubscription opportunity
Oversubscription Opportunity
  • 7% for racks (80)
  • 22% for PDUs (800)
  • 28% for clusters (8000)
    • Could have hosted almost 40% more machines
underdeployment
Underdeployment
  • New facilities plan for growth
  • Also discretization of capacity
    • Eg 2.5kW circuit may have four 520W servers
      • 17% underutilized, but can’t have one more
modeling costs
Modeling Costs

TCO = datacenter depreciation + datacenter opex + server depreciation + server opex

case a
Case A
  • Dell 2950 III EnergySmart
    • 16GB of RAM and 4 disks
    • 300 Watts
    • $6K
assumptions
Assumptions
  • The cost of electricity is the 2006 average US industrial rate ay 6.2 cents/kWh.
  • The interest rate a business must pay on their loans is 12%.
  • The cost of datacenter construction is $15/W amortized over 12 years.
  • Datacenter opex is $0.03/W/month.
  • The datacenter has a PUE of 2.0.
  • Server lifetime is 4 years, and server repair and maintenance is 5% of capex per year.
  • The server’s average power draw is 75% of peak power.
case b
Case B
  • higher-powered server
    • 500W
    • $2K
  • energy cost of $0.10/kWh
  • datacenter related costs rise to 46% of the total
  • energy costs to 25%
  • server costs falling to 31%.
  • hosting cost of such a server, i.e., the cost of all infrastructure and power to house it, is more than twice the cost of purchasing and maintaining the server.
utilization
Utilization
  • CPU Utilization of 50% => 75% Peak Power
  • Nameplate 500W server
    • with all options (max mem, disk, PCI cards)
    • but more commonly 300W
    • Thus 60% utilized => 1.66x OPEX
  • Vendor power calculator assumes 100% CPU utilization
power provisioning problems
Power Provisioning Problems
  • Assume 30% CPU utilization and provision power accordingly
    • 200W instead of 300W
    • Variations could cause server to overhead or trip a breaker
    • Adding memory or disk would require physical decompaction of racks
  • Thus 20-50% slack space common
    • Eg 10MW provisioned power => 4-6 MW actual power (plus PUE overhead)
partial utilization costs
Partial Utilization Costs
  • Partially utilized servers use less power
    • Appear to cost less in OPEX cost per server
    • But produce less value in terms of applications
  • Need metric for application value
    • Eg number of transactions, number of web searches
    • Divide TCO by metric
    • Eg TCO = $1M/month, 100M transactions/month => 1 cent / transaction
    • Eg TCO = $1M/month, 50M transactions/month => 2 cents / transaction (2X cost)
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