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Syndetic. Syndetic Syndetic means a list that’s connected by a conjunction. There were fireworks, music, cake and balloons.

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Syndetic

Syndetic means a list that’s connected by a conjunction.

There were fireworks, music, cake and balloons.

This listing technique may often draw attention to the last item. Think about this. Listing is often used to build description and create images or emphasise emotions.

Not always though- it may just be a generic list that it isn’t necessary to comment on (as above)!

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Asyndetic

Asyndetic means without a conjunction, using a comma instead.

I came, I saw, I conquered.

This listing technique is used to give equal emphasis to each item on the list. Consider the significance of any you wish to comment on.

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A compound sentence

  • This consists of two independent clauses joined together by a conjunction and/ or punctuation.
  • Joe likes chocolate and he likes toffee
  • In the morning, I put the bins out and get on the bus.
  • It’s very unlikely that you’ll need to comment on these at all.
  • One useful way would be if the conjunction is used to connect two contradictory clauses.
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A complex sentence

  • This consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause. A dependent clause gives more information about the independent clause and it begins with a conjunction like when, because, if, or although. The sentence will only have 1 independent clause, but may have more than 1 dependent clauses.
  • Sam went for a walk, although it was raining.
  • In the morning, I put the bins out and get on the bus because it is time for college.
  • These kinds of sentences may often be used to expand a description and provide additional information about a particularly important aspect.
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A minor sentence

  • This is one that does not necessarily have a main verb in it, but which can be understood as a complete unit of meaning.
  • 'What time are you leaving?''Three.'
  • Here, Three is a minor sentence; it has no verb, but the listener will understand that the person means I am leaving at three o'clock.
  • These are often extremely effective and useful to comment on- think about their effect and what feeling/ emotion they’re conveying.
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Simple

sentence

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A simple sentence

  • This contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought.
  • The ballerina danced all night.
  • Annie watched the television.
  • There will be lots of these- only comment on the ones that
  • contain a significant message.
  • They can increase pace if there are a lot in a row.
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Declarative

sentence

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Declarative sentences

  • A declarative sentence states a fact. In addition to making a statement or sharing a fact, declaratives always end with a full stop.
  • The bus arrived late.
  • My pink sweater needs to be washed.
  • The book, while thought-provoking, was challenging to read because of its advanced vocabulary.
  • Most sentences will be declaratives so don’t mention them for the sake of it!
  • Consider the facts being expressed- are they of particular significance?
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Interrogative Sentences

  • Interrogative sentences always end with a question mark and ask a question/ request info.
  • Where are you going today?
  • Will you hand me the red paintbrush, please?
  • I don't know, which train do you think we should take?
  • There will probably be a lot of interrogatory questions in a text.
  • Consider whether they’re rhetorical.
  • Think about how they might be revealing a character’s/ narrator’s state of mind.
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Imperative

sentence

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Imperative Sentences

  • Imperative sentences also end with a full stop. Imperative sentences give a command or ask someone to do so something.
  • Shut the door.
  • Clear the table.
  • Stop driving this instant.
  • Imperative sentences may appear to lack a subject. It is common for imperative sentences to have an implied subject. In all three examples of imperative sentences above, the implied subject is "you."
  • There will probably be very few of these. If you notice any though- what command is being communicated?
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Exclamatory

sentence

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Exclamatory Sentences

  • Exclamatory sentences always end with an exclamation mark.
  • I'm so angry!
  • Get away from me!
  • It's so beautiful, I love it!
  • It is important to note that simply placing an exclamation mark at the end of a sentence does not automatically create an exclamatory sentence. An exclamatory sentence must also convey strong emotion(s).
  • Consider what strong emotions are conveyedin the examples you find.
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Conjunction

A joining word (shouldn’t be used at the start of a sentence but an author may use one for added emphasis).

Subordinating- one part of the sentence is dependent on the other:

I did my reading because I knew it would improve my work

Coordinating- each part of the sentence could stand alone:

I like Shakespeare AND Chaucer

Consider how they’ve been used to vary sentence structures.

Have they been used at the start of sentences for emphasis?

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Verb

An action OR a being word- it can be in different tenses:

PRESENT: I am/ You are/ He is/ They are/ We are

PAST: I was/ You were/ He was/ They were/ We were

FUTURE: I will be/ You will be/ He will be/ They will be/ We will be

Do the tenses change- within a section? At the end of one?

Consider what the tense reveals about the narrator’s/ a character’s feelings.

How might they reflect the narrator’s or a character’s perspective on a particular incident/ event?

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Noun

A thing/ person/ place

Proper: name of a person/ place(capital letter required)

Naomi/ Gateshead / Davison Solicitors

Common: name of a person/ place/ thing that can be counted

classroom/ table/ female

Abstract: love/ fear/ humour/ wisdom

Collective: team/ flight/ pride/ class

Think about where the nouns have been used.

How do they add to a description?

What is the relevance/ symbolism of a particular noun?

Have nouns been used in an unexpected/ unusual place?

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Pronoun

Instead of using names (note what kind of pronouns are used by the author)

Alex goes to college, HE likes IT there.

There are many different kinds of pronouns but the possessive ones (my, your, his, her, its, our and their) and reflexive ones (myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves and themselves) can tell us the most about our characters.

Consider how they’ve been used to indicate the narrator’s/ a character’s feelings.

Consider quantities and types.

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Adjective

This describes a Noun (thing/ person/ place)

large/ friendly/ beautiful

Think about how the adjectives have been used.

How many have been used?

What are they and what do they connote?

Have they been applied unexpectedly to certain nouns?

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Adverb

Describes a verb

HOW? He ran quickly

WHEN? I left early for work

WHERE? I was waiting outside when you arrived

Think about how the adverbs have been used.

How many have been used?

What are they and what do they connote?

Have they been applied unexpectedly to certain verbs?

Have they been used alongside adjectives to build a description?

slide34

Syntax

The way words are combined to create sentences.

Just use this word occasionally if examining sentence structures in general.

slide36

Word classes

Different types of words (nouns, verbs, adjectives...)

You probably won’t have to use this phrase but at least you know what it is now!

slide38

Vocabulary

This is a synonym for ‘words’ but is much more academic.

You could consider formalities of words and their connotations.

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Figurative Language

This is to reference any language that creates images: metaphors/ symbolism/ similes/ personification/ pathetic fallacy.

It is not enough to use this term on its own. You’d be expected to demonstrate knowledge of more specific elements(those named above).

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Connotations

These are the underlying meanings of words. It’s what a single word/ phrase is able to infer.

Snake- it denotes a scaly animal, possibly venomous. It connotes evil, danger, fear...

Obviously only consider these when a word has more than one meaning- past the obvious one!

This can be a useful exploration as it demonstrates to the examiner that you can conduct close analysis.

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Semantic fields

Vocabulary can be grouped according to their relation and connection to one another.

Cat, feline, moggy, puss, kitten, tom, queen and miaow

This will occur quite frequently as it is a common technique the author can use to draw attention to a specific theme or create a particular tone.

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Metaphor

A way of describing something that it is something else, to create a vivid image.

His eyes were deep, black, oily pools.

Consider where these have been used and what image is created.

What is the author trying to get the reader to think about?

slide48

Simile

A way of describing something by comparing it to something else, usually by using the words like/ as.

He was as pale as the moon/ Her hair was like a bird’s nest

Consider where these have been used and what image is created.

What is the author trying to get the reader to think about?

slide50

Personification

A special kind of metaphor where you write about something as if it’s a person with thoughts and feelings.

The sea growled hungrily.

Consider where this has been used and what image is created.

What is the author trying to get the reader to think about? What feeling is being hinted at?

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Symbolism

When an object stands for something else.

A candle might be a symbol of hope/ a dying flower might be the end of a relationship.

Think about recurring symbols in chapters/ sections/ the whole novel and what feelings they create for the reader at each point.

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Pathetic fallacy

The use of weather to reflect feelings and create a particular tone. A cruel lonesome wind is howling through the trees.

This technique is particularly effective in drawing attention to the narrator’s/ a character’s feelings.

slide56

Register

This refers to elements of spoken language and can therefore be ascribed to a text when you’re considering voice.

It is the variety of language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. This will differ depending on the audience (who is being spoken to- friend or stranger), the purpose for speaking and the form (spoken or written).

slide58

Formal/ Informal

Most written word is formal rather than informal but you should consider the level of formality and informality and how it may change for interactions between different characters. Perhaps certain characters have a more formal voice than others.

This is an important point of consideration before writing production questions.

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Grammar

Anything you can spot that is different to standard grammar should be commented upon.

Conjunctions used at the start of sentences/ incomplete sentences

What characters does it apply to?

What is the error drawing the reader’s attention to?

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Lexis

Refer back to word classes here. Think also about high and low frequency words.

If you think a word is used often or surprisingly little, then comment on its significance.

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Phonology

This term refers to the way words sound.

Think about the effects of an ‘s’ sound in comparison to a ‘v’ or ‘b’ soundfor example.

Think about how these sounds might affect us when we read or text or how they may reflect events in the text or a character’s feelings.

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Alliteration

Where consonants are repeated. It’s often used in poetry to give a nice pattern to a phrase.

Sally’s slipper slipped on a slimy slug.

Think about the effect of the sounds and what they may emphasise for the reader. They may not occur consecutively in a sentence/ section.

Alliteration with an ‘s’ is sibilance.

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Assonance

When words share the same vowel sound, but the consonants are different.

Lisa had a piece of cheese before she went to sleep, to help her dream.

Think about the effect of the sounds and what they may emphasise for the reader. They may not occur consecutively in a sentence/ section.

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Onomatopoeia

  • A word that sounds like what it’s supposed to mean.
  • Buzz/ Crunch/ Bang/ Pop/ Ding
  • Think about the effect of the sounds and what they may emphasise for the reader. What image/ feeling do they create?
slide72

Rhyme

Rhyming can be full or partial

Full: black shack, cross boss

Frame: back/buck, dead/deed, peer/pare

Rich: bat/bat, see/sea

See also alliteration/ assonance

Paired couplets- aabb

Envelope rhyme- abba

Cross rhyme- abab

Think about the effect of the sounds and what they may emphasise for the reader. What image/ feeling do they create?

This applies to rhymes across different lines.

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Narrative viewpoint

1st person/ 3rd person/ split

Identify what the voice portrays to the reader.

Consider any changes in narrative voice.

Analyse the changes in their voice- different thoughts and feelings.

You will need to comment on many aspects of language to identify how these changes are created by the author.