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Do Now 2/27/14. Imagine you lived in this house on the edge of a cliff What would some concerns be about living there? What potential dangers might you face? Explain how these dangers may occur. Some of the effects of Erosion and Weathering.

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do now 2 27 14

Do Now 2/27/14

Imagine you lived in this house on the edge of a cliff

What would some concerns be about living there?

What potential dangers might you face? Explain how these dangers may occur.

some of the effects of erosion and weathering
Some of the effects of Erosion and Weathering
how does erosion differ from weathering
How does erosion differ from weathering?
  • Weathering BREAKS DOWN the Earth’s material into sediments.
  • Erosion TRANSPORTS the sediments to a new location.


What are the 2 different types of weathering?





where can erosion be seen in real life
Where can erosion be seen in real life?
  • The entire river basin in Louisiana is the product of sediment deposition from the Mississippi River (following the latest rise in sea level about 5,000 years ago.)
do now 3 3 14
Do Now 3/3/14
  • How did the canyon form? (What caused the landforms to rise, what carved the canyon out of the landform, and what forces have made the canyon even wider than just the river)
  • What is a debris flow? What does a debris flow do?
do now 3 4 14
Do Now 3/4/14
  • What is the experimental group?
  • What are the 2 types of weathering?
  • What is the difference between weathering and erosion?

Soil is:

    • The upper layer of earth in which plants grow, a black or brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay, and rock particles
six types of soil
Six Types of Soil

Clay SandySilty PeatyChalky Loamy

texture soil is made of silt sand and clay a percentage of each
Texture – Soil is made of silt, sand, and clay… a percentage of each
  • Find the point where all 3 lines meet. The name in that area is the type of soil present.
soil texture diagram practice
Soil Texture Diagram Practice
  • (1) Loam
  • (2) Sandy clay
  • (3) Silty clay loam

What type of soil has:

  • 20% clay, 40% silt, 40% sand
  • 40% clay, 10% silt, 50% sand
  • 30% clay, 60% silt, 10% sand

Find the % of each particle at:

  • A
  • B
  • C


  • 60%clay, 20%silt, 20%sand
  • 30%clay, 40%silt, 30%sand
  • 10%clay, 30%silt, 60%sand




Why is Soil Texture Important?



Do Now 3/5/14

Use your soil triangle to find:

60% clay, 40% silt, 0% sand

50%clay, 40% silt, 10% sand

10% clay, 60% silt, 30% sand

soil composition continued
Soil Composition continued…
  • Mineral Matter
    • Provides nutrient minerals for plants
    • Provides pore space for water & air
  • Older soils are:
    • More weathered
    • Lower in certain

essential nutrient minerals


Observe this SOIL PROFILE through soil

Soil layers are horizonsand assigned letters

O: Organic material

(may be absent)

A: Topsoil - Organic material & mineral grains

E: Leached zone

(may be absent)

B: Subsoil – rich in clay, iron, aluminum

C: Weathered bedrock

R: Bedrock

(parent material)

what kind of soil does nc have
What kind of soil does NC have?
  • Red clay and heavy clay – improved by adding organic matter
  • Leading field crop? Tobacco and cotton
what is the largest food crop in nc
What is the largest food crop in NC?
  • Peanuts and sweet potatoes
  • Apples
  • Hay and wheat
  • 73,000 students are living in poverty in Charlotte, NC – that means not getting appropriate nutrition

15.3% of Charlotte lives below the poverty line – that means struggling to make ends meets

  • 75% of the population does not consume appropriate levels of fruits and vegetables – that means unhealthy
fda recommended


FDA Recommended

Alta Cayma, Peru

you need a diverse balanced diet
You need a diverse, balanced diet!
  • Carbs, fats and proteins are essential for storing and providing energy
  • Proteins also break down into amino acids that are very important for structuring cells
  • We also need essential vitamins and minerals
food and agricultural organization of the united nations
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
  • 925 million people are malnourished
  • 15.7% of the world’s population

People in developing countries rely primarily on grains for their diet

  • Because of this agriculture, is very important in relieving world hunger
  • Farmers clear the land, plant seeds, grow crops, and harvest them
  • Manage resources, such as land, soil, water and seeds

Care for growing crops from weeds and pests

  • Harvested crops are used to feed the family, feed livestock, or be sold for a profit
4 types of farms
4 Types of Farms
  • Small tenant farms – farmers do not own the land, but work the land for a landlord – farmers are paid or get a share of the crops

Family-owned farms – Family owns the farm and works the land for itself, small business farming


Commercial farms – Agribusiness companies own large farms and employ farmers to work for them – crops are sold or used for other products (i.e. corn for high fructose corn syrup)


State-owned farms – Government owns these large farms and employs citizen farmers to work the land, largely found in former Soviet Union and China

do now 9 26 13
Do Now 9/26/13
  • List the 6 types of soil.
  • What are the 4 ways that sediments are transported (erosion)?
  • What soil type is:30%clay, 40% silt, 30% sand
what is arable land
What is arable land?
  • The top 6 inches of top soil
  • Determines the productivity of our food production

More than 99% of food comes from this arable land

  • Of the 2.3 billion acres of U.S. land, only 20% is sufficiently fertile for crop production
  • Nearly 400 million acres of land is arable in the U.S.
what is soil
What is SOIL????
  • The relatively thin surface layer of the Earth’s crust consisting of mineral and organic matter.

Soil is not DIRT!


As rocks are broken down by the process called weathering , small pieces of rock (sediments) are formed.

These small pieces of rock are then eroded, or carried away.

These pieces of sediment will eventually form sedimentary rock. However, before other sediments are placed on top of them, these small pieces of rock form soil.

the 5 soil forming factors
The 5 Soil-Forming Factors

Formed from parent material (bedrock) that’s slowlybroken down through weathering processes.

  • climate (water, wind, temperature)
  • biology (macro- and microorganisms, plants)
  • relief(topography)
  • parent material(rocks/minerals)
  • time


Which is the MOST important??


Why is Soil Important?

Fun Fact: There are more living organisms in a cubic foot of soil then all of China!

Fun Fact: There are more living organisms in a cubic foot of soil then all of China!

Fun Fact: 1 teaspoon of good soil contains more than 1 million bacteria!

Soil supports



Soil stores important nutrients

Phosphorus (P)

Nitrogen (N)

Potassium (K)

Calcium (Ca)

Magnesium (Mg)


Soil filters, buffers, detoxifies….



Soil Components

Q: What did the shy pebble say to the big rock?

A. Do you think I’ll ever be alittle boulder?

Dr. Greg Pillar, Queens College