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Magnet Material Choice. Liz Moog. LCLS Undulator System Final LLP Pre-production Review 15-16 Nov 2004. Potential vendors. Prequalified: Shin-Etsu Neomax (formerly Sumitomo Special Metals) Others: Outokumpu Vacuumschmelze Ugimag Dexter (representing Chinese manufacturer).

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magnet material choice

Magnet Material Choice

Liz Moog

LCLS Undulator System

Final LLP Pre-production Review

15-16 Nov 2004

potential vendors
Potential vendors


  • Shin-Etsu
  • Neomax (formerly Sumitomo Special Metals)


  • Outokumpu
  • Vacuumschmelze
  • Ugimag
  • Dexter (representing Chinese manufacturer)

Radiation resistance

  • A significant issue for LCLS magnet choice is radiation resistance.
  • Radiation resistance has been found to vary with the vendor
  • Within a particular vendor’s line, higher coercivity is correlated to better radiation resistance.
some published radiation results
Some published radiation results

Label Material Br (T) Hcj (kA/m)

V411 VACODYM411 1.00 3260

V400 VACODYM400 1.10 2470

V396 VACODYM396 1.15 2150

N32 NEOMAX-32EH 1.11 2387

N35 NEOMAX-35EH 1.17 1989

N44 NEOMAX-44H 1.36 1273

C2300 CORMAX2300 0.93 796

Reprinted from Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A, Vol. 467-468, T. Bizen et al., “Demagnetization of undulator magnets irradiated by high energy electrons”, pp. 185-189 (2001), with permission from Elsevier.

shin etsu magnet grades
Shin-Etsu magnet grades

N39SH from Shin-Etsu was used for the prototype undulator, but newer and better magnet grades are now available

neomax magnet grades
Neomax magnet grades

Neomax 38VH is equivalent to Shin-Etsu N39UH

newest grade availability cost
Newest grade availability / cost
  • Neomax gave us quotes for 42AH and 44AH on a recent (summer 2004) magnet procurement.
  • Cost was ~25% higher than for 38VH.
  • Delivery schedule was 90 days longer (240 days vs 150 days).
  • These grades require an ingredient that presents availability challenges.
  • Neomax is presently challenged to meet customer demand; they are expanding production capability
heat treatment can improve ndfeb resistance
Heat treatment can improve NdFeB resistance

Radiation effect on 35EH magnets after different bake times at 142°C.

Longest bake is 24 hrs.

(Reprinted from Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A, Vol. 515, T. Bizen et al., “Baking effect for NdFeB magnets against demagnetization induced by high energy electrons”, pp. 850-2 (2003), with permission from Elsevier.)

compare sm 2 co 17 and nd 2 fe 14 b
Compare Sm2Co17 and Nd2Fe14B

Neomax 27VH (220°C anneal)

Neomax 35EH (142°C anneal)



Br comparison:

27VH: 1.02 - 1.10 T

35EH: 1.17 - 1.25 T

240HR, 225HR: 1.11 T

(T. Bizen, et al., Proceedings of 8th Int’l. Conf. on Synchrotron Radiation Instrum., 25-29Aug 2003, San Francisco, CA (2004, Amer. Inst. of Physics) p. 167)

Reprinted with permission.

smco magnets
SmCo magnets
  • SmCo magnets were considered for the LCLS undulator
  • More resistance to radiation
  • But weaker magnetically
  • More brittle to handle
  • Long-lived activation
  • We have no experience with it (yet)

The decision was made to opt for the known material, NdFeB.