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Seung-Jae You Sunghun Jun. Safety OF CAR AND PHYSICS (HOW THINGS WORK?). Which parts of the car protects the driver from accident?. 1. Tires ( Automobiles Tires and Friction) 2. Seatbelt ( Seatbelt and Inertia) 3. Airbag ( Airbag and Momentum & Impulse)

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which parts of the car protects the driver from accident
Which parts of the car protects the driver from accident?
  • 1. Tires ( Automobiles Tires and Friction)
  • 2. Seatbelt ( Seatbelt and Inertia)
  • 3. Airbag ( Airbag and Momentum & Impulse)
  • 4. Crumple Zone (Crumple zone and Newton’s Law)
automobiles tires friction
Automobiles Tires & Friction
  • The friction between the tires of an automobile and the road determine the maximum acceleration.
  • However, more importantly, it determines the minimum stopping distance
  • The nature of the friction could actually be a matter of life and death.
  • As a result, more friction, more safe
automobiles tires friction1
Automobiles Tires & Friction
  • How can we increase the friction?
  • Increase the coefficient of friction
  • If the surface of tire is rougher, then the friction force is larger
  • When a tire contacts dry asphalt ground, the coefficient of friction increases.
  • On the other hand, if the roads are wet, a tire contacts with water, the coefficient of friction decreases
  • ex) hydroplaning
automobiles tires friction2
Automobiles Tires & Friction
  • Various types of tires
  • This is an all-season tire. The grooves provide a way for water to escape, increasing the coefficient of friction. The grooves are small enough to prevent the bumpy ride of the next tire
  • The wide deep grooves here allow snow and mud to penetrate. But they give a noisy bumpy ride on pavement ... and if the treads get clogged with mud, the treaded tire essentially becomes a mud-covered 'slick' with a low coefficient of friction
  • In extreme mud, these tractor or bush tires can transfer more force, but the mud doesn't get caught in tiny grooves, so they retain their traction
seatbelt and inertia
Seatbelt and Inertia
  • Newton’s 1st law: an object will move with constant speed in a straight line except when acted upon by a net force
  • when a driver stops the car suddenly, the driver fall forwards, because the driver’s body try to maintain its speed.
  • Consequently, a seatbelt holds the driver and prevents the driver from falling forwards when the car stops
airbag and momentum impulse
Airbag and Momentum & Impulse
  • Every object has momentum.
  • Momentum consists of a driver’s mass and velocity

- Momentum (p) and Impulse (FDt)

- p = mv, FΔt = mΔv

  • There has to be a force in order to stop the driver’s momentum.
  • The driver may hits the dashboard or windshield which also acts as a force stopping the driver but it injures them at the same time
  • By the way. Airbag gives a force over time (Impulse). The more the the force acts on the driver to slow him down, the less damage caused to the driver
crumple zone
Crumple Zone
  • It is also known as crash zone.
  • It absorbs energy from a collision and reduce the force of a collision.
  • Bending during a car crash increases time to halt the car.
  • Newton’s first and second laws are applied to crumple zone.
newton s first law
Newton’s First Law
  • Newton’s First Law (The law of inertia.)
  • Many people are injured because of the law of inertia.
  • Although the car stops, the person inside does not stop.
  • An unbalance force, crumple zone, lowers the tendency of people to move forward in car crash.
crumple zone1
Crumple Zone
  • Newton’s Second Law
  • The second law is expressed in equation form as F=MA. (F= force, M= mass, A=acceleration)
  • A=V/T (V= velocity, T= time)
  • More time means less acceleration.
  • Less acceleration by increased time reduces force that applies to people inside of the car.
what new insight does this topic provide to you
What new insight does this topic provide to you
  • Many people think tire’s surface guarantee your safety 100%, but tire’s surface just makes you safe on the snow, water, or any other ground.
  • Since car body seems easily bend, Some people think that crumple zone makes the car less protected.
  • However, It is just misconception. In fact, crumple zone makes car more safe.
what new insight does this topic provide to you1
What new insight does this topic provide to you
  • A misconception of AWD and 4WD is that they are safer.
  • In fact, they help little bit in cornering and driving on snow.
  • However, it has nothing to do with braking ability
  • AWD and 4WD do not provide additional ability for steering
  • AWD and 4WD do not provide additionalability for braking.
what new insight does this topic provide to you2
What new insight does this topic provide to you
  • Even if the car’s safety improve, this is what happen if you drive too fast

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references and bibliography
references and bibliography
  • http://auto.howstuffworks.com/under-the-hood/car-part-longevity/brake-pads-last1.htm
  • http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mechanics/frictire.html
  • http://www.worsleyschool.net/science/files/tires/andfriction.html
  • http://tristanmac.tripod.com/id14.html
  • http://tristanmac.tripod.com/id8.html
  • http://autofyz6.wordpress.com/2008/04/23/the-physics-of-seat-belts/\
  • http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/seatb.htmlhttp://web.cvcaroyals.org/~rheckathorn/documents/PhysicsofCarCrashesteachersguide.pdf
  • http://www.wheelsnext.com/content/tire_cornering.html
  • http://consumerguideauto.howstuffworks.com/your-ride-4wd-vs-awd-cga.htm
  • http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/newtlaws/u2l3a.cfm
  • http://www.toledotechnologyacademy.org/Documents/PhySci%20Docs/Enrich2-3.pdf
  • http://www.gcsescience.com/pfm46.html