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Elements of Poetry. [ A] Rhyme Definition: The repetition of the stressed vowel sound and all the succeeding sounds. 2. Forms of Rhyme (1) Masculine Rhyme: When the rhyming sounds involve only one syllable, it is called Masculine Rhyme, e.g.. Cold and bold.

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Elements of Poetry

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    1. Elements of Poetry • [A] Rhyme • Definition: The repetition of the stressed vowel sound and all the succeeding sounds. • 2. Forms of Rhyme • (1) Masculine Rhyme: When the rhyming sounds involve only one syllable, it is called Masculine Rhyme, e.g.. Cold and bold. • (2) Feminine Rhyme: When the rhyming sounds involve two or • more syllables, it is called Feminine Rhyme, like “spitefully and delightfully”. • (3) Internal Rhyme: If one or both rhyming words are within the • line, it is called Internal Rhyme. For instance, the grains beyond age, the dark veins of the mother.

    2. (4)End Rhyme: If both of the rhyming words occur at the ends of lines, it is called End Rhyme. For instance Three Poets, in three distant ages born Greece, Italy, and England did adorn (5) Approximate Rhyme: The using of words with any kinds of similarities a. Alliteration: The repetition of consonant, especially at the beginning of words or stressed syllables. For example: While I nodded, nearly napping…. b. Assonance is the repetition of similar vowel sounds within a noticeable range. For instance, All day the wind breathes low with mellower tone, Thro’ every hollow cave and alley lone c. Consonance is the repetition of identical consonant sounds before and after different vowels. For example,

    3. tit and tat, creak and crack. d. Half Rhyme, also called Oblique Rhyme, Near Rhyme, Slant Rhyme: Feminine Rhyme that does not rhyme completely. e.g.. “frightful and slightly”; “yellow and pillow”. e. Eye Rhyme is formed by words that look like a rhymed unit but don’t have the same sounds like “home and some” and ear and bear” 3. Rhyme Scheme: It is the pattern of alternating end rhymes in a stanza or poem. E.g.. Love is a sickness full of woes [a] All remedies refusing [b] A plant that with most cutting grows [a] Most barren with best using [b] [B] Metrical Rhythm 1. Definition: The regular pattern or arrangement of stressed and un stressed syllables in a poem.

    4. Usually a stressed syllable is marked with / and an unstressed syllable is marked with U. 2. Names of Meters. (1) Iambic/ iamb: an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. U / (2) Anapestic/ anapest: two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable. U U/. (3) Trochaic/ trochee: a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable. / U. (4) Dactylic/ dactyl: a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllable. / U U. (5) Spondaic/ spondee: a stressed syllable followed by another stressed syllable. / /. 3. Foot: A unit of poetic meter of stressed and unstressed syllables. 4. Names of Feet. (1) Monometer: one foot.

    5. (2) Dimeter: two feet. (3) Trimeter: three feet. (4) Tetrameter: four feet. (5) Pentameter: five meter. (6) Hexameter: six meter (7) Octameter: eight meter. 5. Scansion is the work to mark the stressed syllables and unstressed syllables and rhyme scheme. E.g. U / | U / | U /| U / | U / Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? [a] U /| U /| U / | U / | U / Thou art more lovely and more temperate. [b] U /| U /| U / | U / | U / Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, [a] U /| U /| U / | U / | U / And summer’s lease hath all to short a date; [b]

    6. We can see there are altogether five units of unstressed syllable and stressed syllable in each poetic line.So these four line is written in iambic pentameter. 6. Caesura /si:zjuərə/ A pause in a line of verse can be dictated either by sense or by natural speech rhythm rather than by metrics is called caesura. A caesura is usually marked with ||. e.g. Meanwhile, ||declining from the noon of day The sun obliquely|| shoots his burning ray; The hungry judges|| soon the sentence sign And wretches||hang that jurymen may dine… [C] Tone: The poise, mood, voice, attitude and outlook of the poet. Tone can be defined as the poet’s or the speaker’s attitudes toward his subject, audience, or even himself. Tone is decided by synthetic analysis of all the elements in poetry (such as imagery, metaphor, understatement ), especially its diction and sentence pattern.

    7. The tone of a poem can by cynical, pessimistic, optimistic, sympathetic, objective, and subjective e.g. I’m nobody! Who are you? Are you---Nobody---Too? Then there’s a pair of us? Don’t tell! They’d advertise---you know! How dreary---to be---Somebody! How public---like a Frog--- To tell one’s name---the livelong June--- To an admiring Bog! The general tone of this poem is not a bitterly cynical one, but a peacefully resigned one. It indicates mutual confidence. [D] Image 1. Poetry is aimed at conveying and enriching human experience through sense impressions. The method is to describe things in words or to paint word picture. Such a word picture is an image.

    8. 2. Different Sense Impressions. (1) Visual Sense: green grass and trees (2) Auditory Sense/sight: the twittering birds, whispering brooks (3) Olfactory Sense/sound: the sweet flowers and fresh air (4) Gustatory Sense/smell: delicious fruits and vegetables (5) Tactile Sense/touch: the supple (moving gently) branches (6) Kinesthetic Sense/movement of muscles: the fluttering movement of butterflies. Our impression of Spring is created by our general feelings or responses to all the things mention above. 3. Image is the representation of sense experience through language. All the images formed into a meaning whole in a poem is often called its Imagery. Image is the soul of poetry and language is the body of poetry. 4. One image is frequently the result of the cooperation of several senses. For example, fresh air involves both the olfactory sense (pleasant smell) and tactile sense (fresh air has a degree of coolness).

    9. It may evoke certain emotional response and create mental images by way of association. Fresh air is often associated with morning, forest, mountain, seaside, which is more suggestive than the fresh air. 5. Imagery often serves three purposes: to create atmosphere, to provide an internal pattern, and to focus the theme of the poem. e.g. The Raven Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore, While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door. In this short part of poem, Allen Poe uses imagery to enhance the the gothic atmosphere of this poem. e.g. #712 Because I would not stop for Death--- He kindly stopped for me--- The Carriage held but just Ourselves--- And Immortality.

    10. We slowly drove—He knew no haste And I had put away My labor and my leisure too, For His civility We passed the School, where Children strove At Recess—in the Ring We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain— We passed the Setting Sun— Or rather---He passed Us— The Dews drew quivering and chill— For only Gossamer, my Gown— My Tippet---only Tulle— We paused before a House that seemed A Swelling of the Ground The Roof was scarcely visible— The Cornice—in the Ground— Since Then---’tis Centuries---and yet Feels shorter than the Day I first surmised the Horses’ Heads Were toward Eternity---

    11. In this poem, Emily Dickinson uses the image of death to create an internal pattern. e.g. The Road Not Taken Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that, the passing there Had worn them really about the same.

    12. And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I --- I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. In this poem Robert Frost use the imagery of road as the central symbol that carries the theme. [E] Theme A novel tends to be thought-provoking and a poem tends to be emotion-arousing. In a poem, there are two kinds of theme, they are Total Meaning and Prose Meaning respectively.

    13. Poetic Device Prose Meaning is equivalent to the them of a novel, usually an idea, a statement of emotion, a presentation of a character, or the combination of these. Total Meaning is the total experience the reader get from reading the poem. Poetic Device Poetic use of language tries to draws on every aspect of language to communicate human experience and to provoke emotional response. It resorts to almost all of the figures of speech to make poetic language intense and condensed. [A] Simile A simile is often marked by like or as. It is used to enhance the meaning of one thing by means of another. E.g. The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

    14. Let us go then, you and I, When the evening is spread out against the sky Like a patent etherised upon a table; Let us go, through certain half-deserted streets, The muttering retreats Of restless nights in one-night cheap hotels, In these few lines, T. S. Eliot compares “the evening” to “A patient etherised”, though the two things are too far apart to be associated with each other in daily conversation. Simile is not to detect similarity, but to create the similarity. By likening “the evening” to “a patient”, the poet intends to convey the paralyzed state of mind. Simile does not only involve two whole things, but some part of things as well. Coleridge compares the stillness of two ships in his “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”: Day after day, day after day/ We struck, nor breath, nor motion;/ As idle as a painted ship/Upon a painted ocean.

    15. [B] Metaphor Poetry relies heavily on metaphor for its communication of human experience. José Ortega Y Gasset says that poetry has become the higher algebra of metaphors. Metaphor is a figure of speech in which the quality of one thing is transferred onto another. It is also a comparison in nature, but one that is implicit, instead of being the explicit one one can dind in simile. Simile is a juxtaposition of two things while a metaphor fuses two things. e.g. Further in Summer than the Birds. In this line, Emily Dickinson uses the birds as if they were a ponit in the continuity of time, a phase of seasonal cycle. e.g. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested. In this line, Francis Bacon talks about books as if they were food. [C] Conceit: fanciful idea(s)or fanciful poetic image. A conciet is a metaphor or simile that is made elaborate, often Extravagant.

    16. The difference between conceit and metaphor or simile is largely of degree. A metaphor or simile usually appeals mainly to the reader’s five senses and is easier to understand; a conceit mainly appeals to the readers intellect so is difficult to understand. E.g. In “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning” , John Donne compares two lovers’ souls to the legs of the compasses. [D] Personification Personification is a figure of speech in which inanimate objects or abstractions are given with human qualities or are represented as possessing human form. By transferring human qualities to things otherwise without, the poet transfers human emotions as well. E.g. Siege of Corinth by Lord Byron The Night-winds sigh, the breakers roar, And shrieks the wild sea-mew (seagull) E.g. Robert Burn’s “My heart’s in the Highlands a-chasing the deer” Here heart is endowed with the ability to chase.

    17. Epithets can also be used to personify inanimate or abstract things. E.g. A Pause, by Christina G. Rossetti. Only my soul kept watch from day to day, My thirsty soul kept watch for one away. The adjective ‘thirsty’ brings to the ‘soul ’ liveliness and makes it a personification. E.g. Death thou shall die , John Donne; Shelley asks the west wind, ‘make me thy lyre, even as the forest is.’ [E] Symbol A symbol is an index that points to or represents something else. A symbol is usually a material object that represents something abstract. The relationship between the symbol and the symbolized is often established through convention, resemblance, or association. e.g. Nodding symbolizes consents, shaking hand means welcome or reconciliation. [F] Paradox It comes from the Greek word ‘paradoros’ meaning conflicting with

    18. expectation. A paradox may be a statement or situation that appears to be self-contradictory to the common sense but is in fact valid or true. e.g. a well-know secret agent e.g. Ode on a Grecian Urn Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on; In these two lines, John Keats reveals through paradox the human psychology that what one imagines is more desirable than what he has. e.g. My life closed twice before its close--- It yet remains to see If immortality unveil A third event to me So huge, so hopeless to conceive As these that twice befell. Parting is we all know of heaven, And all we need of hell

    19. In this part of poem, Emily Dickinson creates a paradox between life and death. Paradox, like conceit, works on the intellectual level instead of the sensory one. [G] Ambiguity Ambiguity refers to the state or situation in which more than one interpretation may be possible. William Empson: Ambiguity is the root of poetry. e.g. Song of Innocence And I plucked a hollow reed, And I made a rural pen, And I stain’d the water clear, In this part of the poem, William Blake creates an ambiguity by using ‘stain’d the water clear’. It can meant that poet make the dirty water clear or dirty the clear water. In Paradise Lost, the line “Satan’s heart distends (expands) with pride” may mean pleasure or satisfaction, it can also mean arrogant or

    20. disdainful conduct or attitude. [H] Onomatopoeia /Onəumætəu’piə/ The formation or use of words that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or action they refer to. To achieve certain musical quality, poetry relies heavily on the sounds effects. A donkey ‘heehaws’, a cat ‘news’ and bees ‘buzz’ Onomatopoeia is used to echo the sense. e.g. Snake He reached down from a fissure in the earth-wall in the gloom And trailed his yellow-brown slackness soft-bellied down, over the edge of the stone trough And rested his throat upon the stone bottom And where the water hand dripped from the tap, in a small clearness, He sipped with his straight mouth Softly drank through his straight gums, into his slack long body, Silently.

    21. In this poem, D. H. Lawrence suggests the sinuous (curving and winding) and slow movement through the repeated [s] sound. Criticism and Appreciation of Poetry [A] General Questions. 1. Poetic experience 2. Poetry instead of novel or drama 3 Views on poetry. a. Poetry lifts the veil from the hidden beauty of the world, and makes familiar objects as if they were unfamiliar. --- Percy Bysshe Shelley b. Poetry is at least an elegance and at most a revelation. ---Robert Fizgerald c. Poetry is a way of taking life by the throat. ---Robert Frost d. When power leads man towards arrogance, poetry reminds him of his limitations. When power narrows the area of man’s

    22. Concern, poetry reminds him of the richness and diversity of existence. When power corrupts, poetry cleanses. --- John F. Kennedy. e. The crown of literature is poetry. It is its end and aim. It is the sublimest activity of the human mind. ----W. Somerset Maugham. 4. Translation of poetry. [B] Elements of Poetry.