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CHAPTER 17. STRUCTURE AND MOVEMENT. FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. Shape and support. Protection Internal organs Attachment Production Red blood cells Storage a. Calcium and phosphorus. BONE STRUCTURE. PERIOSTEUM 1. Membrane that covers the bone’s surface.

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chapter 17

CHAPTER 17

STRUCTURE AND MOVEMENT

functions of the skeletal system
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
  • Shape and support.
  • Protection
    • Internal organs
  • Attachment
  • Production
    • Red blood cells
  • Storage

a. Calcium and phosphorus

bone structure
BONE STRUCTURE

PERIOSTEUM

1. Membrane that covers the bone’s surface.

a. Blood vessels carry nutrients into the bone

b. Contains cells involved in the growth and repair of bone.

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COMPACT BONE

1. Hard, strong layer under the periosteum.

a. Gives the bone strength

b. Has a flexible framework.

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SPONGY BONE

1. Found towards the end of long bones.

a. Many small open spaces that make bone lightweight.

b. Filled with marrow

- Red Blood Cells

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CARTILAGE

1. Rubbery layer of tissue found at the ends of bones where they form joints.

a. Cartilage acts as a shock absorber.

b. Reduces friction between bones when they rub.

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Skeleton begins as cartilage and is gradually replaced by bone.

1. Bone tissue is always being formed and reformed.

2. Osteoblasts

a. Build up of bone (Ca & P), which make bone hard.

3. Osteoclasts

a. Break down bone tissue.

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JOINTS

1. Any place where two or more bones come together.

2. LIGAMENTS

a. Tough band of tissue that holds bones in place

types of joints
TYPES OF JOINTS
  • Immovable Joint
    • Allows little or no movement.
    • Example: skull
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Pivot Joint

    • One bone rotates in a ring of another stationary bone.
    • Example: Neck
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Ball And Socket Joint

    • The rounded end of one bone fits into a cuplike cavity on another bone.
    • Example: Hips
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Hinge Joint

    • Back-and-forth movement.
    • Example: Elbows
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Gliding Joint

    • One part of a bone slides over another bone.
    • Example: Wrists
    • Used the most in the body.
the muscular system
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Definition

A muscle is an organ that can relax and contract, and provides the force to move your body parts.

two kinds of muscle
TWO KINDS OF MUSCLE
  • Voluntary Muscle
    • Muscles that you are able to control.
    • Skeletal
  • Involuntary Muscle
    • Muscles that you cannot control.
    • Smooth & Cardiac
three types of muscle tissue
THREE TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE
  • Skeletal
    • Most common type of muscle.
    • Voluntary
    • Striated or looks striped
    • Contract quickly and tire easily.
    • Connected to bones by a thick band called a tendon.
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Smooth
    • Found in internal organs.

Example: large intestine

    • Involuntary.
    • Contract and relax slowly.
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Cardiac
    • Found only in the heart.
    • Striated.
muscles and movement
Muscles and Movement
  • When one muscle of a pair contracts, the other relaxes.
  • Muscles always pull.
  • Overtime, muscles can become larger or smaller, depending on whether or not they are used.
the skin your skin is the largest organ of your body
THE SKINYour skin is the largest organ of your body.

Layers Of The Skin

1. Epidermis – outer, thinnest layer.

a. Made of dead cells

b. New cells are produced at the base of the epidermis.

c. Melanin is produced

i. Skin pigment

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2. Dermis – the middle layer.

a. Thicker than the epidermis.

b. Contains blood vessels, nerves, muscles, oil glands, and sweat glands.

3. Fatty layer – insulates the body.

functions of the skin
Functions Of The Skin
  • Protection
    • Disease-causing organisms cannot pass through.
    • Prevents excess water loss.
  • Sensory response

a. Nerve cells detect and relay information to the brain.

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Formation
    • Vitamin D is formed
  • Regulates body temperature
    • Blood vessels release or hold heat.
    • Perspiration eliminates excess

heat that has been produced by muscle contractions.

5. Waste removal