Using Progress Monitoring to Support RTI Services for Infants and Toddlers. DEC October, 2008. Presenters. Charles Greenwood , Jay Buzhardt, & Dale Walker Juniper Gardens Children’s Project, University of Kansas Jerry Gruba, & Sheri Haupert
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To examine the role of progress monitoring and decision making regarding children’s response to intervention (RtI) in tiered models of early intervention.
To illustrate an RTI approach using Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs) home visiting by providing multiple levels of support for children learning early communication skills.
Reflect progress toward a socially valid general outcome
Strategic (a leading indicator) not comprehensive measurement
Chart an individual’s progress
Brief and quick to administer
Repeatable (rate of growth, slope)
Trend line compares expected vs. actual rates of learning
The most well known IGDIs are Pediatric Growth Charts Infants and Toddlers
Widely used by pediatricians and parents
36 Mos Expectation
Child’s Observed Trajectory
Toy Form A: House
Toy Form B: Barn
©2003 Juniper Gardens Children’s Project
Each family plays a role in the decision making process with respect to review of child progress data and decisions about need for intervention
Caregivers are involved in the home-based assessment process and as implementers of intervention strategies
Intervention or condition Line
Slightly Below Benchmark
In the Promoting Communication Manual, strategies for children communicating mostly through gestures and vocalizations include:
Responding to child’s communication so the child learns that they can get needs fulfilled and attention when they communicate
Talking more and often to a child so that they hear words and labels for people, toys and activities of interest to them.
Showing an interest in what the child is playing with, looking at, or exploring and commenting or labeling the toy or activity
Expanding on the child’s vocalizations by repeating them back in words so child hears the words that are related to objects or activities of interest
The MOD is a web-based tool informed by the ECI that supports data-based decision making and a general RtI model for infants and toddlers
You conduct an ECI with child and enter it into the online data system
The system shows that this score is “Below Benchmark”
The MOD asks if the assessment was ‘valid’ Decisions?
If invalid, do another ECI within two weeks
If valid, “Why Is It Happening” stage of the MOD is initiatedIs There A Problem?
Was the assessment valid?
Answer three brief questions to help determine why this child’s language may be falling below benchmark
Medical issues, major family changes, or changes in her daycare environment are considered
If recent change or medical condition is identified…
Child moves to monthly ECIs
If the cause of the problem is unknown…
Child moves to monthly ECIs
“What Should Be Done” is initiated
Language Strategies are recommended immediately
MOD recommends strategies and routines for the caregiver(s) to try based on the child’s ECI key skill elements
Recommended strategies are indexed to
Language Intervention Tool Kit
Promoting Communications Strategies Manual
Home visitor chooses routines he/she believes would be most appropriate for the caregiver.
On each subsequent home visit, home visitor completes an implementation fidelity checklist
How much are they using the strategies?
Which ones do they like the most?
Are they having trouble using them?
Are they noticing any language improvement?
Enters checklist into the MOD
Three ECI’s after the caregiver(s) receive the recommendations…
MOD analyzes ECI performance
ECI before and after the recommendations were provided
Expected ECI performance six months from now
After 3 more ECIs, MOD compares communication before and after, makes recommendations
The “What Should Be Done” recommendations will adapt to reflect changes in performance on the Key Skill Elements.
Three Early Head Start programs throughout KS
Home visitors with a case load ≥ 2 in each program randomly assigned to
No MOD (N=17)
Monthly Monitoring Indicator
More graphing options, permit users to include/exclude benchmark performance
Phasing in more programs around Kansas into the MOD
Allow for the use of other interventions in the MOD
IGDI assessments and MOD delivered via handheld computers
Allow for more immediate “point-of-care” recommendations
Campbell, P. H., & Sawyer, L. B. (2007). Supporting learning opportunities in natural settings through participation-based services. Journal of Early Intervention, 29, 287-305.
Carta, J. J., Greenwood, C. R., Walker, D., Kaminski, R., Good, R., McConnell, S. R., et al. (2002). Individual growth and development indicators (IGDIs): Assessment that guides intervention for young children. Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series, 4(15-28).
Crowe, L. (2002). The Language Intervention Toolkit. Topeka, KS: Kansas Department of Social and Rehabilitative Services.
Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., Baggett, K., Buzhardt, J., Walker, D, Terry, B. (2007). Best Practices in Integrating Progress Monitoring and Response-to-Intervention Concepts Into Early Childhood Systems. In Best practices in School Psychology, V (A. Thomas & J. Grimes Eds.), pp. 535 – 548. National Association of School Psychologists: Bethesda, MD.
Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., Walker, D., & Hughes, K. (2006). Preliminary investigations of the application of the Early Communication Indicator (ECI) for infants and toddlers. Journal of Early Intervention, 28(3), 178-196.
Peterson, C. A., Luze, G. J., Eshbaugh, E. M., Jeon, H., & Kantz, K. R. (2007). Enhancing parent-child interactions through home visiting: Promising practice or unfulfilled promise? Journal of Early Intervention, 29, 119-140.
Walker, D., Carta, J. J., Greenwood, C., & Buzhardt, J. (2008). Individual Growth and Development Indicators: Their use in progress monitoring and intervention decision making in early education. Exceptionality, 16, 33-47.
Walker, D., Small, C., Bigelow, K., Kirk, S., & Harjusola-Webb, S. (2004). Strategies for Promoting Communication and Language of Infants and Toddlers Manual. Juniper Gardens Children's Project, Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies, University of Kansas.