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Modern Reef Keeping - Chemistry. Modern reef keeping. Optimal water parameters for reef keeping Life support Temperature Oxygen Salinity pH/ Alk Introduction to skeletogenesis Ca , Alk , Mg Typical syndromes in aquarium Secondary elements K, I , Sr , Fe

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modern reef keeping
Modern reef keeping
  • Optimal water parameters for reef keeping
    • Life support
      • Temperature
      • Oxygen
      • Salinity
      • pH/Alk
    • Introduction to skeletogenesis
      • Ca,Alk, Mg
      • Typical syndromes in aquarium
    • Secondary elements
      • K, I, Sr, Fe
    • Nutrients, Pollutants & Algae
      • PO4 / NO3 /SiO4
      • Sources
      • Typical algae in reef tank
life support parameters temperature salinity oxygen and ph alkalinity
Life support parameters- Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen and pH/Alkalinity.

All biological processes occur in aqueous environment

Temperature

Salinity

Dissolved Gasses

pH

life support parameters temperature
Life support parameters- Temperature

Water temperature in the tropic’s range : 22 -30°C (NOAA,WOA98)

life support parameters temperature1
Life support parameters- Temperature
  • Temperature
    • One of the most crucial water parameter in the reef environment with direct impact on:
      • Dissolved gases and their saturation
      • Inhabitance’s metabolism
      • Accuracy of S.G. and pH measurements.
    • The Key is Stability - Temperature fluctuations of more than 2°C are the main reason for coral bleaching

Water temp. rise in 2 degrees

life support parameters temperature2
Life support parameters- Temperature
  • Recommended temp in a reef tank: 26-27°C
    • Closer to natural temp. at most areas where corals are collected from.
    • Increase metabolism= rapid growth and better immune response
life support parameters oxygen
Life support parameters- Oxygen

Oxygen levels in coral reefs (ppm)

DO levels in coral reefs: 4.5-5 mg/l with 80% saturation (NOAA,WOA98)

life support parameters oxygen1
Life support parameters- Oxygen
  • Dissolved Oxygen
    • DO is temperature and salinity dependent.
    • As long as the DO levels are in saturated/ slight below super-saturated , the reef inhabitance can tolerate higher temperature (28-29°C)
    • Saturated oxygen levels prevent dissolved CO2 buildup and pH drops.
life support parameters oxygen2
Life support parameters- Oxygen
  • Dissolved Oxygen
    • Increasing DO:
      • Protein skimmer
      • Surface skimmer
      • Water surface agitation
    • Can be measured with colorimetric test kit or non-directly but very efficient with RedOx meter.
    • Super saturation =Micro-bubbles
life support parameters salinity
Life support parameters- Salinity

Salinity levels in coral reefs (ppt)

salinity levels in coral reefs: 33-38 (ppt) (NOAA,WOA98)

life support parameters salinity1
Life support parameters- Salinity
  • Salinity
    • Salinity is the summery of all the dissolved salts mass in volume of water and it is measured as ppt = g/L = ‰ =psu, with refractometers or Conductivity meters (mS).

Specific Gravity is the densities ratio

between salt water solution and the

same volume of pure water at 4°C

S.G. doesn’t have units, measured by

hydrometer and it is temp. dependent!!!

    • Salinity affects marine organisms because the process of osmosis.
    • Na & Cl concentration in the aqueous medium has direct influence on marine organisms metabolism – Coral calcification.
    • Recommended salinity in reef tank: 33-36 ppt for optimal calcification.
life support parameters ph
Life support parameters- pH.

pH levels in coral reefs: 8.05-8.12

life support parameters ph alkalinity
Life support parameters- pH/Alkalinity
  • pH and dissolved CO2
    • All biological processes occur in specific

narrow range of pH.

      • Optimal Calcification pH: 8.3
      • Optimal ammonia removal

from gills: 7.8-8.4 (marine fish).

    • Optimal level for reef tank: 8.2-8.4.
    • pH levels major influential factor is CO2- alkalinity

CO2 + H2O <=> H2CO3 <=> H+ + HCO3- <=> 2H + + CO32-

In sea water: (1%) (93%) (6%)

    • How to prevent pH drops:
      • Stable alkalinity (buffer) 3-4.5 meq/l
      • Protein skimming
      • Water agitation
      • Organics removal
introduction to skeletogenesis or coral calcification
Introduction to Skeletogenesis or coral Calcification
  • The site : Coral polyp
  • The lead stars : Ca⁺², HCO₃⁻
  • The co-stars: Mg ⁺², H⁺, CO₂, Sr ⁺²
  • The director: Zooxanthellae
  • Special effect: Light
introduction to skeletogenesis or coral calcification1
Introduction to Skeletogenesis or coral Calcification

The Zooxanthellae takes CO2 from coral respiration and from HCO3- and convert it to carbohydrates

In low concentration

Sea Water

Mg ⁺

HCO3-

Ca⁺²

Passive diffusion

HCO3-

The Carbohydrates are used as fuel for the active transporters

g⁺

Coral Tissue

⁺²

Active diffusion

Mg

Mg

HCO3-

HCO3-

HCO3-

Ca +2

Ca⁺²

Ca⁺²

Coral skeleton = Aragonite

introduction to skeletogenesis or coral calcification2
Introduction to Skeletogenesis or coral Calcification
  • Optimal conditions for skeletogenesis:
    • Creating positives ionic gradient from the surrounded water to the inner coral layers.
    • Balanced quantities of the building blocks.
    • Proper pH and Salinity
    • Energy source
introduction to skeletogenesis or coral calcification4
Introduction to Skeletogenesis or coral Calcification
  • The role of Magnesium:
    • “The Buffer “ of the buffer = MgCO3-
    • Controls precipitation
    • Controls CaCO3 crystallization = skeletal strength
    • Important co-factor in zooxanthellae photosynthesis.

Mg

the role of other important major minor and trace elements
The role of other important major, minor and trace elements:
  • Many other elements are used as co-factors in many biological processes. The most important are those that must be replenished on regular basis.

K⁺ - Zooxanthellae nutrient, promotes red/pink/ Purple pigments. Incorporate with active membrane transportation pumps (Na/K)

Sr⁺² - Increase skeleton strength by controlling the formation of aragonite instead of calcite (Like magnesium)

Fe⁺³/Mn⁻² - Important photosynthesis co-factor, Zooxanthellae nutrient, promotes Green pigments. Important co-factor in de-nitrification.

I-- Important antioxidant , control Photosynthetic oxygen radicals in Soft and LPS corals. Promote pigments formation and reduce bleaching by UV shock.

pollution and pollutants
Pollution and pollutants
  • Coral reefs develop and flourish only in oligotrophic ocean areas with clear, unpolluted with limited nutrients in the water.
  • In the natural reef environment, the major nutrients N, P, C are only available for the zooxanthellae (Coral symbiosis)
  • Pollution – When the nutrients reach to a certain levels they stop being the limited factor in the reef system.

High nutrient levels enhances

bacteria proliferation and algae

bloom- Eutrophication.

p ollutants n
Pollutants - N
  • In natural corals reef: NO₃⁻. < 0.3ppm
  • Nitrogen forms in the aquarium: NH₃/NH₄⁺, NO₃⁻.
  • Sources: Organic mater decomposition, fish extracts, tap water, supp., salts, live rocks, coral sand.
  • Negative effects of high nitrate levels:
    • Indirect damage to corals by Increasing zooxanthellae densities
      • Competition with the coral on carbon source (HCO₃⁻)
      • Intensive photosynthesis – high levels of oxygen radicals.
      • Coloration
    • Eutrophication –nuisance algae outbreak.
  • Treatments
    • 10-15% weekly water change
    • NO₃⁻ absorbers –zeolites
    • Assimilation - Refugium
    • Enhancing De – nitrification
p ollutants n de nitrification
Pollutants – N – De nitrification
  • De – nitrification - Microbial process of nitrate reduction to nitrogen gas.
  • Made by at least 10 facultative heterotrophic bacteria strains at anoxic levels – not anaerobic !

ppm< O₂< 0.2 ppm

0>ORP> -180 mv

12NO₃⁻ + 10CH₃OH+ 12H⁺-> 6N₂+10CO₂ +26H2O

  • Carbon source is the limited factor of the process (also Mo and Fe).
  • Light inhibit de-nitrification
  • The process occur naturally in live rocks pores and in the lower sediment (after 3 weeks from starting the cycle)
  • Filtration methods to control/ enhance de-nitrification:
    • De-nitrators
    • Assimilation - refugium
    • DSB/ Plenum
pollutants p1
Pollutants - P
  • Phosphate forms in marine environment : PO₄³⁻, HPO₃²⁻.
  • Sources:Organic mater decomposition, fish extracts, tap water, supp., salts, live rocks, substrate.
  • In corals reef: PO₄⁻. < 0.05 ppm
  • Negative effects of high phosphate levels:
    • Direct damage to corals by reducing available Ca ions for coral skeletogenesis. Ca3(PO4)2 formation inhibit CaCO₃ lattice formation.
    • Increase zooxanthellae densities.
    • Eutrophication – Cyanobacteria – Toxins.
  • Treatments
    • 10-15% weekly water change
    • PO₄³⁻ absorbers (FeO/OH, FeCl, AlO)
    • Assimilation - Refugium
    • Microbial reduction – carbon source.
pollutants si
Pollutants - Si
  • Silicon forms in marine environment : Si(OH)4. Si(OH₃)o.
  • Sources: tap water, supp., salts, live rocks, substrate.
  • In corals reef:Si(OH)4 < 0.5 ppm
  • Important nutrient for sponges and snails.
  • High level can cause diatoms outbreak for several days.
  • Treatment:
    • 10-15% weekly water change
    • Si(OH)4 absorbers (FeO/OH, FeCl, AlO)
    • Assimilation – Refugium with sponges
    • Do nothing- it will leave as it comes.
pollution the magic circle of polluted tank
Pollution- The magic circle of polluted tank.

Pollution – When the nutrients reach to a certain levels they stop being the limited factor in the reef system. High nutrient levels enhances bacteria proliferation and algae bloom- Eutrophication

Organic matter:

Fish food and extracts, Dead Bacteria and micro-algae, Coral tissues and mucus

NO3

Algae

+ Oxygen

P04

Bacteria

Organic matter decomposition reduce dissolved oxygen

pollution oxygen demand and redox
Pollution- Oxygen demand and RedOx
  • Many biological process can described as Reduction/Oxidation processes where electrons are transferred from one element to the other.

Oxidation – nitrification - NH₃ + O₂ -> NO₃⁻

Reduction –De nitrification - NO₃⁻ + C -> N₂

  • All decomposition process requires oxygen as the oxidizer- therefore the oxygen levels will drop followed by a drop in RedOx level (mV).
  • Increasing the oxygen levels, by removing the organic material out of the system, will increase the RedOx potential.
  • How to increase RedOx in the reef aquarium:
    • Good protein skimmer – takes the organics out and insert oxygen.
    • Ozone- break down organics and oxidize water.
pollution eutrophication of nuisance algae
Pollution-Eutrophication of Nuisance algae
  • Nuisance algae – undesired micro-algae or desired algae in un controlled growth (Macro algae).
  • Micro-algae:
    • Green hair algae
    • Blue-Green – Cyanobacteria
    • Diatoms
    • All the three will appear naturally during the cycle period.
  • Macro-algae:
    • Caulerpa sp.
  • The dangers of eutrophication :
    • Competition on nutrients with zooxanthellae& coralline algae
    • Competition on space
    • Corals suffocation and shading
    • Toxins – alleochemicals
    • Oxygen reduction during the dark periods
    • Oxygen super saturation during the light hours
pollution eutrophication of nuisance algae1
Pollution-Eutrophication of Nuisance algae
  • Nuisance algae – Green algae
  • Most common: Bryopsis, Debresia, Valonia.
  • Circumstances for outbreak:
    • Organics accumulation
    • High nitrate, phosphate and iron levels
    • Strong lights not with the adequate PAR and color (to much red) or old bubbles.
  • Damage:
    • Competition on nutrients with zooxanthellae and coralline algae
    • Competition on space
    • Corals suffocation and shading
    • Oxygen reduction during the dark periods
    • Oxygen super saturation during the light hours
  • Treatments:
    • Organics removal – Protein skimmer
    • Nutrient reduction - biological processes
    • Assimilation – Macro-algae refuigium
    • Physical trimming
    • Fixing lights issues
pollution eutrophication of nuisance algae2
Pollution-Eutrophication of Nuisance algae
  • Nuisance algae – Blue green - Cyanobacteria
  • One of the oldest life forms.
  • Circumstances for outbreak:
    • Organics accumulation
    • Unbalanced N : P ratio or high Phosphate – assimilate nitrogen from atmosphere
  • Damage:
    • Toxins
    • Competition on space
    • Corals suffocation and shading
    • Oxygen reduction during the dark periods
  • Treatments:
    • Organics removal – Protein skimmer
    • Phosphate reduction - biological processes.
    • Assimilation – Macro-algae refuigium
    • Physical removal
pollution eutrophication of nuisance algae3
Pollution-Eutrophication of Nuisance algae
  • Nuisance algae – golden brown - Diatoms
  • Circumstances for outbreak:
    • Silicates
  • Damage:
    • Nothing
  • Treatments:
    • Patient !
    • If it’s continues- check for Si in the fresh water source.
pollution and pollutants summery
Pollution and pollutants-Summery

Organics

Reduce oxygen

Increase bio - load

Increase nutrients

Suffocation

toxins

Calcium accessibility

Damage to corals and fish

Algae outbreak

Suffocation,

Toxins, competition with Zooxanthellae

thank you for listening

Thank you for listening!!!

God help us, it’s only the second lecture and we have another 3…