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CD 506, Dysfluency

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  1. CD 506, Dysfluency • Course Overview • I. Knowledge of Content • Definition • Etiology • Model • Stuttering Facts • Stuttering/Cluttering • Development of Stuttering and Spontaneous Recovery • Childhood Stuttering • Theories of Development

  2. Course Overview: Assessment • II. ASSESSMENT • Children • Adults • Historical Assessment Approaches

  3. III. Overview: Intervention • III. Overview: Intervention • Therapy Stages: E,T,M • Approaches • Traditional • Fluency Shaping • Extended Length of Utterance, ELU • Punishment • Counseling • Biofeedback

  4. Famous People Who Stuttered • Moses • Demosthenes, Greek orator who used pebbles • Vergil, Roman Poet • Newton, Physicist, Law of Gravity • Charles Darwin • Cotton Mather, Puritan Leader and famous Preacher • Henry James, American Novelist • Marilyn Monroe • Winston Churchill • King George VI

  5. More Famous People • Ron Harper, basketball star • Bruce Willis, Actor • Greg Luganis, Olympic diver • Tommy John, former Yankee pitcher • Dave Taylor, hockey star • Lester Hayes, pro football • Ken Venturi, golfer • John Updike, novelist • Mel Tillis • Congressman Joseph Biden • Bo Jackson, Pro football and baseball • Peggy Lipton, actress

  6. Background Information: Definitions • Definition Range • Problem: little agreement on what distinguishes stuttering from normally disfluent speech • Definition Range: • Symptomatic-NonSymptomatic

  7. Symptomatic-Nonsymptomatic Continuum • Symptomatic Non-symptomatic

  8. Symptomatic Definitions • Symptomatic-incidental to the ‘problem’ • equals a neurosis • Examples: • Sheehan: Stuttering is a disorder of the social presentation of self • stuttering is a conflict revolving around self and role, an identity problem • do not identify types of behaviors that unambiguously identify a stuttered

  9. Definitions: Non-Symptomatic • NonSymptomatic • reference to a specify behavior • Wingate: disruption in the fluency of verbal expression, which is characterized by involuntary, audible or silent, repetitions or prolongations in the utterance of short speech elements, namely: sound, syllables and words of one syllable. These disruptions usually occur frequently or are marked in character and are not readily controllable

  10. Wingate’s Definition explained • A. disruption in the fluency of verbal expression, which is • B. characterized by involuntary, audible or silent, repetitions or prolongations in the utterance of short speech elements, namely: sound, syllables and words of one syllable. • C. These disruptions usually occur frequently or are marked in character D. are not readily controllable

  11. Van Riper’s Definition • A stuttering behavior consists of a word improperly patterned in time and the speaker’s reaction thereto. • Primarily a disorder of temporal aspects of speech, not of the articulatory, phonatory or symbolic features • an inability to perform the motor sequencing of a given word or syllable or words at a proper moment in time

  12. Wendell Johnson, 1946 • Stuttering was what the person does to avoid stuttering. It is anticipatory, apprehensive, hypertoninc avoidance reaction

  13. Peters & Guitar’s Definition • Consult text, chapter 1

  14. Coriat, 1943 • Describes stuttering as a psychoneurosis, characterized by the persistence of early, pregenital oral nursing, oral sadistic and anal sadistic elements

  15. Brutten & Shumaker,Two-factor theory • Stuttering is a form of fluency failure that results from conditioned negative emotion. classical and operant conditioned behavior

  16. Bloodstein’s Definition • Anticipatory-Struggle Hypothesis • Comment: “We can define stuttering in any way that we agree on, but the question of whether anything is ‘really’ stuttering or ‘really’ fluency is unanswerable.” 1987

  17. Perkins’s Definition • Describes stuttering as a multifaceted disorder culminating in an individual's inability to control the neuromotor timing of syllables caused by yet undetected abnormal neurolinguistic problems that cause discoordination between various systems involved in speech

  18. Culatta and Goldberg • Stuttering is a developmental disorder of childhood, the cause of stuttering is unknown, the individuals view communication differently from normal speakers, and individuals have abnormal overt or covert communication behaviors

  19. World Health Organization • Disorders in the rhythm of speech in which the individual knows precisely what he wishes to say, but at the same time is unable to say it because of an involuntary, repetitive, prolongation or cessation of a sound • views stuttering as an impairment- disruption • views stuttering as involuntary • most invariant fundamental characteristic

  20. Symptomatic-Nonsymptomatic Continuum • Symptomatic Non-symptomatic

  21. End of Chapter Notes