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Mixed Conifer Forests. Mixed Conifer Forests. * ~8,000-10,000 ft elevation. * 25-30 inches of precipitation/annually. * very complex and heterogeneous in structure, composition, and disturbance history. Ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa. Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii.

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Mixed Conifer Forests

* ~8,000-10,000 ft elevation

* 25-30 inches of precipitation/annually

* very complex and heterogeneous in structure, composition, and disturbance history.

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Mixed Conifer Forests

-most variable and complex of any forest type

-received relatively little research attention

Two general types:

1) Warm-dry Mixed Conifer

2) Cool-wet Mixed Conifer

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Warm-dry Mixed Conifer

-shares some of the major species of ponderosa pine forests

-resembles ponderosa pine forests in terms of stand structure and disturbance regimes

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Cool-wet Mixed Conifer

-shares some of the major species of spruce-fir forests

-similar stand structure and disturbance regime as spruce-fir

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Warm-dry Mixed Conifer

-lower elevations, southerly aspects

-ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, aspen, white fir, Gambel oak, other shrubs

-recurrent, non-lethal fires (20-50 yr intervals); rare lethal fires (>100 yr intervals)

-episodic establishment of pine and Douglas-fir, perhaps mainly after fire; adult trees survive non-lethal fire

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Cool-wet Mixed Conifer

-higher elevations, northerly aspects

-white fir, Douglas-fir, aspen, blue spruce, snowberry, other shrubs

-lethal fires at long intervals (>100 yr); occasional small non-lethal fires; landscape patch mosaic

-episodic establishment of Douglas-fir, perhaps mainly after fire; aspen may dominate stand after lethal fire

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EURO-AMERICAN SETTLEMENT

FIRE

SUPPRESSION

GRAZING

LOGGING