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160 Years of Suffrage Leadership. Wisconsin Election History. Prepared by Scott Wittkopf , Chair, Forward Institute. 1846 Constitution. First Constitution considered to be “radical” Gave women right to own property Outlawed commercial banks

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160 years of suffrage leadership
160 Years of Suffrage Leadership

Wisconsin Election History

Prepared by Scott Wittkopf, Chair, Forward Institute

1846 constitution
1846 Constitution
  • First Constitution considered to be “radical”
  • Gave women right to own property
  • Outlawed commercial banks
  • Gave the right to vote to immigrants who applied for citizenship
  • African American suffrage allowed through referendum
  • Adoption failed in 1847 due to powerful banking lobby, and territorial law gave only white men the right to vote to ratify.
1848 wisconsin constitution
1848 Wisconsin Constitution
  • Gave the right to vote to:
  • White men
  • Age 21 or older
  • Residents for one year
  • Immigrant men who applied for citizenship
  • Non-Tribal American Indians, recognized as citizens by US government
1849 referendum
1849 Referendum
  • Voters approved a referendum 5,265 to 4,075 giving African American men the right to vote
  • Poll workers effectively barred African American men from voting in elections after the referendum
  • Controversy created because “less than a majority of all votes cast” in the election approved the referendum

Nelson Dewey, Governor 1848-1852

1865 ezekiel gillespie
1865 Ezekiel gillespie
  • Ezekiel Gillespie was barred from registering to vote in an 1865 election. He took election inspectors to court, and his case advanced immediately to the State Supreme Court.
  • Represented by Civil Rights attorney Byron Paine.
1866 gillespie v palmer et al
1866 Gillespie v. Palmer et al
  • Unanimous State Supreme Court ruling agreed with adoption of 1849 referendum argued by Gillespie
  • Recognition of African American male right to vote as of 1849 in Wisconsin
1869 fifteenth amendment
1869 Fifteenth Amendment
  • The Fifteenth Amendment to the US Constitution guaranteed African American males the right to vote
  • Three years after the Gillespie Court decision in Wisconsin granted African American male suffrage
1908 american indian restrictions
1908 American Indian Restrictions
  • Wisconsin enacted law prohibiting any American Indian from voting if they lived on a reservation
  • Turned back voting rights for thousands of American Indians in Wisconsin
1919 wisconsin ratifies 19 th amendment
1919 Wisconsin Ratifies 19th Amendment
  • Wisconsin is the first state to ratify the 19th Amendment to the US Constitution, giving women the right to vote
  • Carrie Chapman Catt is national women’s suffrage movement leader from Wisconsin
1920 19 th amendment becomes law
1920 - 19th Amendment becomes law

Women are granted the right to vote

President Wilson signs the 19th Amendment

Anti-Woman’s suffrage poster

1924 indian citizenship act
1924 “Indian citizenship act”
  • Granted full US citizenship and voting rights to America’s indigenous people, called “Indians” in this Act
  • Filled a legal loophole in the Fourteenth Amendment used to deny Native Americans’ rights

President Coolidge with Osage nation members at White House signing ceremony

1935 progressive reforms
1935 Progressive reforms
  • Most other states still had literacy, language, or property requirements
  • Wisconsin makes historic voting rights expansion:
  • Every citizen over 21 and state resident for one year eligible to vote
  • 10 day in-district residency requirement
  • Not convicted of bribery or wagering on elections

Governor Philip LaFollette (son of Robert M “Fighting Bob” LaFollette) addresses the state Legislature

1965 voting rights act
1965 Voting Rights Act
  • Landmark Federal Civil Rights legislation
  • Prohibited “voting qualification, or prerequisite to voting” previously used to disenfranchise minority voters
  • Gave Federal Government authority to enforce voting rights violations against minorities

President Johnson and Martin Luther King, Jr. at the 1965 VRA signing

1976 election day registration
1976 “Election Day registration”
  • Wisconsin legislation package modernized voter registration and pioneered voter poll access
  • Allows for “same day” registration at polling places
  • Mandatory in cities with populations greater than 5,000
  • Wisconsin still leads the nation in voter turnout due to Election Day Registration
1993 national voter registration act
1993 “National voter registration act”
  • Federal Legislation included “Motor Voter” requiring registration at state DMV sites
  • Wisconsin Election Day Registration expansion statewide to qualify for exemption
  • Saves the state millions of dollars in administrative costs
2002 help america vote act
2002 “Help america vote act”
  • Provided largely for equipment modernization
  • Response to controversy over 2000 Presidential election
  • Established the US “Election Assistance Commission”
  • Mandatory uniform voter registration and reporting statewide
2006 statewide voter registration system
2006 Statewide Voter Registration System
  • Created as required by “Help America Vote Act”
  • Election Administration package managed by the Government Accountability Board
  • Statewide, central database of voter information
  • Interacts with other state databases
2011 wisconsin act 23 voter id
2011 Wisconsin Act 23 “Voter ID”
  • Restricts registration to those with valid, state-issued photo ID
  • District Residency extended from 10 to 28 days
  • Requires electors to sign poll list
  • Ends “voter corroboration” for electors without proof of residence
  • Repealed laws enacted as early as 1935

Percent of Wisconsin Population without driver’s license

2012 act 23 injunctions
2012 Act 23 injunctions
  • Two separate judges issue injunctions declaring the photo ID portion of Act 23 unconstitutional
  • The Wisconsin Supreme Court has twice declined to bypass Appeals Courts, still pending
  • While the photo ID requirement has been stayed, the rest of the law remains in effect.
slide21

Election Day Registration saves Wisconsin taxpayers millions of dollars

Estimated G.A.B. costs to end Election Day Registration in Wisconsin

vote in wisconsin
Vote in wisconsin

Presentation sources:

http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/

http://gab.wi.gov/elections-voting/election-day-registration

http://gab.wi.gov/elections-voting/photo-id

http://gab.wi.gov/