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PRINCIPLES OF SPORTS TAPING . CONTENTS. Definition of Taping Uses of Taping Principles of application Effectiveness and evaluation Practical application. Definition of Taping. Application of adhesive tape (elastic or non-elastic) to:.

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PRINCIPLES OF SPORTS TAPING


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contents
CONTENTS
  • Definition of Taping
  • Uses of Taping
  • Principles of application
  • Effectiveness and evaluation
  • Practical application
definition of taping
Definition of Taping

Application of adhesive tape (elastic or non-elastic) to:

  • provide support & protection to soft tissues and joints, and
  • to minimize swelling and pain after injury

Can be used:

immediately following injury

during rehabilitation e.g. chondromalacia patellae

prophylactic measure e.g. training and competition

taping principles
Sound knowledge of anatomy, joint & tissue mechanics

thorough assessment & diagnosis

Injury mechanics specific to the sport

Taping Principles
effects of taping
Effects of Taping
  • Mechanical
  • limits & controls joint movement
  • limits stretching of soft tissues
  • compression to oedematous area
  • maintains desirable alignment
slide7
Physiological
  •  proprioception
  • prevents & limits swelling
  • relax protective muscle spasm
  • ‘physiological rest’
  •  rate of tissue repair
slide8

Therapeutic

  •  pain
  •  muscle spasm
  • maintains optional functional ability
  •  risk of further injury/ irritation
  •  risk of permanent deformity

Psychological

types of tapes
Types of Tapes
  • Occlusive vs. Porus

- Rubber-based tapes

- Acrylate tapes

  • Elastic vs. Non-elastic

- Elastic tape - for compression and generally ineffective as a support material

- Non-elastic tape - for stability & protection from further mechanical damage

slide10
Non-elastic tape

support structures like ligament, joint capsule

limit joint movement

protect vs. re-injury

not for compression

Elastic tape

compress & support soft tissues like muscles

provide compression

ineffective as a support material

Not for first aid use (compression too severe)

slide11

Elastic tape

Hamstring Strain

slide12

Lateral Ligament

Sprain

Non-elastic tape

principles of application

RULE OF THUMB

tape in the direction that will shorten injured structures

Principles of Application

Consider:

  • Area to be supported
  • movement to be limited
  • functional status
  • modification needed?
  • assess & analyse
slide16

Application procedures

  • wash the part
  • remove hair (prewrap)
  • check skin condition (blisters, skin irritation, minor wounds)
  • orthopaedic felt (bony prominence)
  • do not use limb as anchor to pull tape off
  • even overall pressure
basic taping applications
Basic Taping Applications
  • Anchor Tape
  • Stirrup / U tape
  • Spur / Lateral U / Gibney
  • Locking tape
  • Heel lock
slide18

overlap 1/2 - 2/3 of previous turn

not over inflammatory or infectious skin conditions

remove strapping: snubbed nose scissors

never pull at right angles to the skin or rip off violently!

problems in sports taping
Problems in Sports Taping
  • Wrong application?
  • Not enough support
  • Contraindications? (Open skin, infection, tape allergy)
  • Signs: circulatory signs, discomfort, skin laceration, blisters, allergic skin reaction
  • Other problems: hinder application of other treatment or performance, psychological dependence, tapes are expensive!
evaluation of the effectiveness of taping
Evaluation of the effectiveness of taping
  • Is it effective in reducing the injury incidence?
  • Is it effective after a long period of exercise?
  • Does it influence performance?
  • Does it lead to reduction in symptoms?
  • Is taping superior to bracing or cast immobilisation?
is it effective in reducing the injury incidence
Is it effective in reducing the injury incidence?

Two review studies

  • Verhagen et al. (2000)
  • Quinn et al. (2000) – Cochrane Review
critical review
Critical review

Verhagen et al. (2000)

  • 8 studies included
  • Taping  incidence of sprains and results in less severe sprains
  • Brace seems to be more effective in athletes with previous ankle sprains
meta analysis
Meta-analysis
  • Quinn et al (2000)
  • Meta-analysis on the use of external ankle support towards prevention of ankle injuries
meta analysis25
Meta-analysis
  • “Beneficial effect of external ankle supports in the form of semirigid or air-cast braces to prevent lateral ligament injury in high risk sporting activities.”
  • Subjects with previous history of ankle sprain may have risk reduced by wearing such supports
meta analysis26
Meta-analysis

The effect should be taken in the light of:

  • baseline risk of the injury in the activity,
  • previous injury status
  • any possible or perceived loss of performance
  • supply and cost of the supportive device
is it effective after a long period of exercise
Is it effective after a long period of exercise?

Greene & Hillman (1990)

  • Compare athletic taping vs. semirigid orthosis inv./ev. restriction before, during & after 3 hour volleyball practice
  • n = 14

Results:

  • Maximum reduction in joint restriction due to taping (both inv. & ev.) occurred 20’ after exercise
  • orthosis - only eversion was compromised (? More effective)
does it influence performance
Does it influence performance?

Burks et al (1991)

  • analysis of athletic performance with prophylactic ankle devices
  •  performance when ankles are taped
  • ankle taping  performance in vertical jump, shuttle run & sprint
  •  performance in brace is minor
does it lead to reduction in symptoms
Does it lead to reduction in symptoms?

Cushnaghan et al (1994)

  • Medial taping of the patella provides short term pain relief in patients with PFJ OA

Kowall et al (1996)

  • Efficacy of taping PFJ pain
  • no beneficial effect in the addition of taping to standard PT treatment
is taping superior to bracing or cast immobilisation
Is taping superior to bracing or cast immobilisation?

Braakman et al (1998)

  • 5th MTP fracture
  • functional taping vs. cast immobilisation
  • Functional recovery: mobility, power grip, pulling strengths and torque strengths
  • functional taping showed earlier functional recovery (1 & 4 wks)