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Environmental Controls II/IIG. Lecture 5 Electrical Equipment Utility Rate Structures Electrical Power Management. Electrical Equipment. Power Supply. S: F. 27.1 p. 1228. Electrical Equipment. Switchgear. S: F.27.2 p.1229. Electrical Equipment. Switchgear Space Requirements.

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environmental controls ii iig
Environmental Controls II/IIG

Lecture 5

Electrical Equipment

Utility Rate Structures

Electrical Power Management

electrical equipment
Electrical Equipment

Power Supply

S: F. 27.1 p. 1228

electrical equipment3
Electrical Equipment

Switchgear

S: F.27.2 p.1229

electrical equipment4
Electrical Equipment

Switchgear Space Requirements

S: F.26.28 p.1191

electrical equipment5

S: F.27.12 p.1239

Electrical Equipment

Distribution Networks

  • Cable/Conduit
  • Busduct
  • Busway
  • Underfloor systems
  • Raised floor systems

S: F.27.33 p.1253

S: F.27.9 p.1237

electrical equipment6
Electrical Equipment

Safety Considerations

  • National Electric Code
  • Fuses and Circuit Breakers
  • Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI, GFI)
  • Battery Backup
  • Emergency Generator
  • Armored Cable vs Metal Clad
electrical equipment7
Electrical Equipment

Electrical Closets

S: F.28.14 p.1281

electrical equipment8
Electrical Equipment

Electrical Plans

  • Lighting
  • Power

S: F.28.21 p.1296

S: F.28.22 p.1297

environmental controls ii iig9
Environmental Controls II/IIG

Utility Rate Structures

utility rate structures
Utility Rate Structures

Billing Components

  • Connection Charge
  • Consumption
  • Demand
  • Power Factor

S: F.25.13 p. 1157

utility rate structures11
Utility Rate Structures

Block Rate

$X1 for first Y1 kwh

$X2 for next Y2 kwh …

Energy Charge

$X per kwh

utility rate structures12

PEAK DEMAND

Utility Rate Structures

Ratchet Clause

Charge to insure capacity based on previous peak demand

AVG DEMAND

utility rate structures13
Utility Rate Structures

Time of Day Rates

$X1/kwh for on peak hours

$X2/kwh for off peak hours …

Uninterruptible Power Supply

example
Example

Large General Service Rate

$11.25/month service connection

Demand charge: $9.72/kw

Energy charge: $0.0682/kwh first 200 kwh

$0.0632/kwh for remainder

Ratchet clause: 11 month

example15
Example

Previous 11 month peak demand: 25 KW

Month Kwh KW

1 750 30

2 680 22

3 570 21

4 550 32

5 600 35

6 560 19

7 580 21

8 500 16

9 590 18

10 620 21

11 590 22

12 620 23

example16
Example

Previous 11 month peak demand: 25 KW

Month Kwh KW w/o ratchet

1 750 30 $351.25

2 680 22 $269.07

3 570 21 $252.39

4 550 32 $358.05

5 600 35 $390.37

6 560 19 $232.32

7 580 21 $253.03

8 500 16 $199.37

9 590 18 $224.50

10 620 21 $255.55

11 590 22 $263.38

12 620 23 $274.99

$3,324.27

example17
Example

Previous 11 month peak demand: 25 KW

Month Kwh KW w/o ratchet w/ratchet

1 750 30 $351.25 $351.25

2 680 22 $269.07 $346.83

3 570 21 $252.39 $339.87

4 550 32 $358.05 $358.05

5 600 35 $390.37 $390.37

6 560 19 $232.32 $387.84

7 580 21 $253.03 $389.11

8 500 16 $199.37 $384.05

9 590 18 $224.50 $389.74

10 620 21 $255.55 $391.63

11 590 22 $263.38 $389.74

12 620 23 $274.99$391.63

$3,324.27 $4,510.11 +36%

environmental controls ii iig18
Environmental Controls II/IIG

Electrical Power Management

facts of life
“Facts of Life”

Utilities are licensed to provide sufficient capacity to maintain expected demands

New power plants are expensive to license and construct

  • Nuclear
  • Hydroelectric
  • Natural Gas
  • Oil
  • Coal

All pose safety concerns to humans or the environment

sources of electrical power
Sources of Electrical Power

http://www.eia.doe.gov/neic/infosheets/electricgeneration.htm

Coal 51

Nuclear 20

Natural Gas 17

Water 7

Petroleum 3

Other 2

Total 100%

future sources of electrical power
Future Sources of Electrical Power

http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/index.html

Coal 38

Nuclear 15

Natural Gas 23

Water--

Petroleum 6

Other 18

Total 100%

emerging technologies strategies
Emerging Technologies/Strategies

Supply Side Management

  • Wind
  • Photovoltaics
  • Tidal
  • Biomass: “Waste to Energy”

Demand Side Management

  • Conservation vs New Construction

Design Practice Initiatives

  • Design Certifications
  • Stewardship of the Built Environment
supply side management25
Supply Side Management

Biomass: “Waste to Energy”

http://www.co.hennepin.mn.us/vgn/portal/internet/hcdetailmaster/0,2300,1273_83267_100490584,00.html

supply side management26
Supply Side Management

Tidal

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bay_of_Fundy

demand side management
Demand Side Management

Conservation instead of New Construction

www.utahpower.net

demand side management28
Demand Side Management

Consumption Control:

More efficient lamps

More efficient motors

More efficient appliances

Controls (occupancy sensors, etc.)

demand side management29
Demand Side Management

Demand Control:

Manual (timers, management)

Automated (EMS, BAS, PC)

Loads:

Sheddable

Non-sheddable

S: F.25.13 p.1157

demand side management30
Demand Side Management

Utility Incentives:

  • Time of Day Rates: load shifting
  • Demand Reduction Rebates: demand limiting
  • Equipment Rebates: consumption reduction
  • Contract Renegotiation: cost reduction

UM Hospital, Ann Arbor MIAKA Associates, 1988

demand side management31
Demand Side Management

Industry Incentives:

  • Partnering
  • Energy Codes
  • Tax Credits
  • “Green Lights” program

UM Hospital, Ann Arbor MIAKA Associates, 1988

design practice initiatives
Design Practice Initiatives

Design Certifications:

  • LEED
  • Energy Star
  • Green Globes

Phillip Merrill Environmental Center, Annapolis MDSmithGroup, 2000

design practice initiatives33
Design Practice Initiatives

Stewardship of the Built Environment

=Historic Preservation + Sustainability

  • Conserves resources
  • Reduces material streams
  • Revitalizes neighborhoods
  • Maintains “sense of place”
  • Increases livability

Big-D Construction Headquarters, Salt Lake City, UTGSBS, 2005

1st LEED “GOLD” building in Utah