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CNS/PNS & Impulse Transmission. Autonomic NS- “subconscious” Regulate activity of smooth muscle (digestive), cardiac muscle (heart) & certain glands (midbrain) Structures involved –neurons – integration within the brain • Receives input, ready for action Somatic NS- “conscious”

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slide4
Autonomic NS- “subconscious”

Regulate activity of smooth muscle (digestive), cardiac muscle (heart) & certain glands (midbrain)

Structures involved –neurons – integration within the brain • Receives input, ready for action

Somatic NS- “conscious”

Means consciously perceived sensations – excite skeletal muscle to move muscles/skeleton

Structures involved - neuron connects CNS to organ or muscle

so here s how it all goes down fast and ugly but the whole ball of wax
So here’s how it ALL goes down!(fast and ugly….but the whole ball of wax!)
  • Sensory neuron stimulated
  • Neuron becomes positive; K channels open
  • Neurotransmitters released into synapse space
  • Push/excite all nearby neurons

Watch this at work:

McGraw-Hill: K/Na pump and synaptic cleft movement animations

what happens when there is a gap in impulse transmission
What happens when there is a ‘gap’ in impulse transmission?

What does a severed spinal cord mean here?

pns human vision
PNS: HUMAN VISION
  • Binocular Vision
  • Depth perception
  • Photo-sensetiveCells
    • Rods: light/dark
    • Cones: color
    • Optic nerve: wired directly from rods and cones to eye through optic chiasmata
slide12

MusclePrimary Function

Medial rectus moves eye towards nose

Lateral rectus moves eye away from nose

Superior rectus raises eye

Inferior rectus lowers eye

Superior oblique rotates eye

Inferior oblique rotates eye

eye structures
Eye Structures

Cornea

Tough transparent outer layer

Light enters

Fluid chamber behind (AH)

Iris

Disk of colored contractile tissue

Autonomously contolled

Pupil

(Regulated by iris) determines amount of VLS entering the eye

Attached to tiny muscles to lens and eye

Lens

Flexible and transparent piece of protein

Iris (Small muscles) attached

Convex: flips images over (corrected in visual cortex of brain)

slide15

Vitreous humor

Jelly-like fluid

Transparent

Shape

Aqueous humor

Lubricates lens (after cornes)

Retina

Contrast

Cones/Rods

Allows you to see color…sometimes???

Optic nerve

Sends messages to brain

Sclera

‘whites’ of the eyes

** Tapetum

Reflective membrane; night vision

magic or
Magic….or
  • Optical illusions- overstimulation of photosensitive cells in retina results in confusion, dizziness and in some cases even nausea and seizure

Enjoy the illusions!

useful resources
Useful Resources:
  • Cow eye dissection video
  • Cow eye dissection worksheet
  • Cow eye dissection lab (includes worksheets)
  • Cow eye dissection quiz
today s task reflex lab
TODAY’S TASK: Reflex lab
  • Today, with a partner, you will determine your reflex ‘arc’: from sensory input to brain processing to motor reaction
  • First trial = silence
  • Second trial = distraction