Group Sharing. Wordle. www.wordle.net. What is antibiotic resistance?. Antibiotic resistance often confused with virulence Virulence refers to factors that enable a bacterium to attach to host cells, invade tissue, avoid the immune system, form biofilms and establish an infection
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* Conjugation may be most common method of horizontal transfer
Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Science:
Moved to humans in commensal bacteria
Evolved in pathogenic bacteria
What effect will they have back in nature?
José L. Martínez, et al., Science 321, 365 (2008)
Antibiotic use in animals
Antibiotic use in humans - concerns
Am. Sci., November-December 2005 Volume 93, Number 6 Page: 508
Development of Antibiotic Resistance in Biofilms
are hiding in plain sight.
Human sites: middle ear, teeth, intestines, infected lungs
Conjugation and transformation occur in biofilms spread of resistance genes
Volume 4, Number 5, 2009 / Microbe, p231
Human Microbiome Project
Pneumonia caused 6.9% of all deaths worldwide in 2002, an average was 634 deaths per million people per year.
These sites provide data sets-
EID, Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2004, p. 515
The spa-type database of the Public Health Research
Institute Tuberculosis Center includes >950 clinical S. aureus
isolates; most (~80%) are methicillin resistant. DNA
sequence analysis identified 37 unique, 24-bp SSR types; one
type was 1 codon longer. The number and organization of the
repeat types define the S. aureus spa type; to date, 186 spa
types have been identified and catalogued in a relational
Loci with short sequence repeat (SSR)
regions may have suitable variability for discriminating
outbreaks (16). Two S. aureusgenes conserved within the
species, protein A (spa) and coagulase (coa), have variable
SSR regions constructed from closely related 24- and 81-bp
tandem repeat units, respectively.