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3rd ENSEC Conference 29th June - 3rd July 2011 University of Manchester, UK Phillip Slee Professor in Human Development Flinders University Adelaide, South Australia www.caper.com.au Director: Flinders Centre Promotion Well-Being: Violence Prevention (SWAPv).
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3rd ENSEC Conference29th June - 3rd July 2011University of Manchester, UK
Professor in Human Development
Adelaide, South Australia
Director: Flinders Centre Promotion Well-Being: Violence Prevention (SWAPv)
Flinders University Evaluation Team :P. T. Slee, M.Lawson, A.Russell, H.Askell-Williams, K.Dix, L.Owens, G.Skryzpiec and B.Spears
KidsMatter Evaluation Findings
”KidsMatter & Disability
KidsMatter and Academic Outcomes’
The ‘Elephant in the Room’
Translating Research to Policy & Practice
Summary & Discussion
(Greenberg, et al,2003)
(Weare & Nind, 2011)
(Slee et al, 2009).
KidsMatter process assumptions:
protective factors/reduction in risk factors.
The factors reside within the school environment, the family context and the psychological world of the child, & include:
(Tennant et al, 2007)
Quantitative Measures in all 100 schools
Qualitative Measures: Visits to 10 Schools
Longitudinal data collected up to 4 times during 2007 and 2008
State Project Officers
School engagement & implementation of KM, Facilitators, Barriers
Parent Focus Groups
Parent: Knowledge, Skill, Confidence, etc
Student MH: Parent-rated SDQ & SCS
100 schools across Australia
50 Round 1 started in 2007
50 Round 2 started in 2008
Background: gender, age, ATSI, ESL, Fee, ’at risk’
Student MH: Teacher-rated SDQ & SCS
Teacher: knowledge, confidence, SEL, etc
Principals & KM Leaders
KM Executive Summary, ‘pill & dose’
Student Mental Health Outcomes
SDQ (Goodman, 2005)
how welcomed members feel and their sense of belonging.
provision of social and emotional learning, professional development
parenting education and support.
supporting students who are experiencing, emotional - social - behaviour difficulties.
Latent class analysis
Structural equation modelling
Thematic analysis of qualitative data
We used the part-correlation coefficient r for reporting all effect sizes. We use correlations of 0.10, 0.24, and 0.37 as indicative of small, medium and large effects, respectively (Hattie,2009)
“[KidsMatter] has changed school culture, I think. It’s changed the way the school views mental health. It’s given a greater awareness, but it’s also changed the way, people relate to one another, particularly the students, and the way the classrooms operate”. (School Principal)
Why was least progress made on Component 4?
more knew how to help students
more ‘strongly agreed’ that the staff acted to help students
more ‘strongly agreed’ that their teaching programs helped students
more ‘strongly agreed’ that they had good self-efficacy
for teaching SELImpact of KidsMatter on Schools and Teachers:Teachers’ knowledge, competence and confidence
Parents perceptions were that, as a result of KidsMatter:
more became involved with the school
more had increased their capacity to help their children with social and emotional issues
more felt their school better catered for their child’s needs
Parenting knowledge and approach showed little change from the initial (self-reported) high levels
Strengths go up
Difficulties go down
KidsMatter achieved its major aims to improve student mental health and well-being and reduce mental health difficulties
KidsMatter achieved a shift for a number of students within the ‘borderline’ and ‘abnormal’ ranges, into the ‘normal’ range
The numbers vary depending on how you assess mental health
“Mental Health is not simply the absence of mental disorder or illness, but also includes a positive state of mental well-being” (World Health Organisation, 2004)
Strengths of the evaluation design
Multi-methods and tools
Multiple time points
Ecologically valid (based in authentic settings)
Stratified school selection process
The analysis of change
undertaken in this report uses
Latent class analysis
Structural equation modelling
The Initiative is not, and was not designed to be, a strict randomly controlled trial. Because the sample is not a true random sample, caution should be taken if generalising findings to other students and other primary schoolsin Australia.
KidsMatter had a positive impact on schools, teachers, parents, and children
co-morbidity is present and a student with a disability is more likely to also have mental health problems.
using the SDQ students without a disability had 1 in 8 chance of having mental health difficulties (i.e.being in the abnormal range),
students with one identified disability had a 1 in 3 chance
and students with multiple disabilities had a 1 in 2 chance
The findings indicate, on average, a practically significant (parents=large & Teachers = medium) improvement in student wellbeing ie increase on the ‘Mental Health Strengths’ scale.
and a practically significant (Parents=small effect size & Teachers = medium effect size)decrease in mental health difficulties over time ie reduced SDQ (difficulties) scores
What else can be done for students with disabilities?
was employed to examine the relationships between school-level characteristics and student-level academic outcomes (Raudenbush &Willms, 1995).
Quality Assurance: “If we keep on doing what we have been doing, we are going to keep on getting what we have been getting”. (Wandersman et al, 2008)
has been seen as one way of maintaining and assessing quality outcomes
“concerns remain about the
transferability of intervention models beyond well-controlled settings” (Humphrey et al,2010,p.215)
Murgatroyd and Morgan (1993, p.45)
How to translate our research to outside settings?
(Slee, Murray-Harvey, Dix & van Deur,2011)
Promotion - How well information about the existence and value of the programme is promoted to new schools and the broader service community.
Readiness - This outlook refers to the extent to which the school recognises there is a problem to be addressed, is willing to address it, and has the capacity to do so.
Adoption –With the support of the staff, parents and carers, the principal commits to implementation on behalf of the school community. This stage may also be informed by local community agencies.
Implementation - The program must meet the local needs of the community in which the intervention is taking place and must be responsive to local conditions.
Sustainability - Whether the fidelity, dosage and quality are maintained over time
Monitoring - An accurate monitoring and feedback system. This aspect is central to quality assurance.
Incentive – infrastructure that provides incentives or recognition to schools and individuals within schools for achieving implementation milestones.
Slee, P.T., Murray-Harvey, R., Dix, K; van Deur, P (2011).
Researchers need to innovate & take risks in developing partnerships & exchanging knowledge to influence policy & practice
“Science has an important role to play on advising policy makers on crafting effective responses to social problems that affect the development of children” (Shonkoff & Bales, 2011,p.17)
“This is not an initiative for poor schools with disadvantaged families, it’s an initiative for all children in primary schools and all types of schools” (School Principal)
The Flinders University’s Evaluation overall main recommendation was “that the broad framework, processes and resources of KidsMatter be maintained as the basis for a national rollout”
Federal Minister for Mental Health & Aging
announced a rollout to 1700 schools with an additional $18.4m.
Gladwell (2002) identifies 3 principals for creating social change:
“Do not go where the path may lead, go instead where there is no path, & leave a trail”.
Ralph W. Emerson
# a framework,
# an implementation process, and
# key resources to develop and implement evidence-based mental health promotion, prevention & early intervention strategies.
Effect size: Part correlation r