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College Notes UNIT 3. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. The Industrial Revolution was…. A Shift from an Agricultural to an Industrial society. Agricultural Industrial. CAUSE #1: Growing Urban Population. Two factors that contributed to a growing Urban population were:

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college notes unit 3

College Notes UNIT 3

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

the industrial revolution was
The Industrial Revolution was…

A Shift from an Agricultural to an Industrial society.

cause 1 growing urban population
CAUSE #1: Growing Urban Population

Two factors that contributed to a growing Urban population were:

  • Immigration from Southern & Eastern Europe
  • Rural-to-urban migration

= cheap labor for factory work

cities grew rapidly
Cities Grew Rapidly
  • 1. Near raw materials (Northeast)
  • 2.Near Industrial areas
  • 3. Near transportation routes
  • 4. Near opportunities in the job market
  • 5. Near access to seaports

But There were Terrible Conditions in the Cities

  • Poor sanitation and living conditions
  • Tenement apartments
  • Sweathouses
expansion of cities
Expansion of Cities
  • Railroads linked towns that were formerly isolated.
  • Cities specialized in products that they could sell in order to make money.
  • Inventions such as electric streetcars, suburban railroads or skyscrapers met the new needs of the cities.
ghettos mulberry bend new york jacob riis
GhettosMulberry Bend, New York, Jacob Riis
  • Urban neighborhoods dominated by one ethnic or racial group of immigrants were called ghettos.
  • Some ghettos formed because immigrants felt more comfortable living near people with the same language and traditions.
working families
Working Families
  • In the 1880s, children made up more than 5 percentof the industrial labor force.
  • Children often left school at the age of 12 or 13 to work.
  • Girls sometimes took factory jobs so that their brothers could stay in school.
  • If an adult became too ill to work, children as young as 6 or 7 had to work.
  • Rarely did the government provide public assistance, and unemployment insurance didn’t exist.
  • The theory of Social Darwinism held that poverty resulted from personal weakness.
  • People had no choice but to work for a small hourly wage- “wage slavery”
the conditions of workers at the turn of the century
THE CONDITIONS OF WORKERS AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

GENERAL WORKING CONDITIONS

  • 12 or more hours / 6 days a week
  • 4000 hours a year (about 2000 today)
  • No vacation or sick leave
  • No unemployment compensation
  • No reimbursement for injuries
the conditions of workers at the turn of the century1
THE CONDITIONS OF WORKERS AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

WAGES (Payment) = Concentration of wealth in the hands of a few industrialists!

  • So low that all members of the family worked
  • Child--$0.27 a day for 14 hours ($5 today)
  • Woman--$269 a year ($4,500 today)
  • Men--$498 a year ($8,330 today)
  • Carnegie (a steel monopoly owner)--$23 million a year ($425 million today)
slide14
THE CONDITIONS OF WORKERS AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

GENERAL FACTORY CONDITIONS

  • Dirty and poorly ventilated
  • Poorly lit and never heated or cooled
  • Dangerous and faulty equipment
  • Repetitive and mind numbing work
  • made accidents common
examine the following photos closely
Examine the following photos closely.

How do these photos show the problems with working conditions during the Second Industrial Revolution 1865-1920?

Why do you think they were taken?

status change
Status Change

Take 2 minutes to stretch and get ready to discuss the second cause of the Industrial Revolution

cause 2 advances in technology and innovations
CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations

1869 – completion of the transcontinental railroad

cause 2 advances in technology and innovations1
CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations
  • Samuel F. B. Morse invented the TELEGRAPH
        • Developed in 1838 with code
        • First message sent in 1844
cause 2 advances in technology and innovations2
CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations

1856-Bessemer Process

Turning IRON INTO -> STEEL

Taking the impurities out of the iron and turning it into steel

cause 2 advances in technology and innovations3
CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations
  • 1876- Alexander Graham Bell developed the Telephone
cause 2 advances in technology and innovations4
CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations
  • 1880- Thomas Edison developed the light bulb
cause 3 abundance of natural resources
CAUSE #3: Abundance of Natural Resources
  • The United States had a large amount of oil, iron, and coal, which were profitable resources that generated (created) a lot of money.
exit ticket
Exit-Ticket
  • Please complete the multiple choice questions on the worksheet individually!
  • Use the side of the paper with notes to help you answer the questions.
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