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Nitra. Mária Mondoková 8.B. Nitra.

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nitra
Nitra

Mária Mondoková

8.B

nitra1
Nitra

Nitra je mesto ležiace v Nitrianskom kraji vzdialené asi 80 km severovýchodne od Bratislavy. Preteká ňou rovnomenná rieka Nitra a zo severnej strany sa nad ňou týči vrch Zobor. Je najstarším mestom na Slovensku, prvé potvrdené historické zmienky sa datujú na začiatok 9. storočia. Počtom obyvateľstva 82661 (k 1.1.2010)je piatym najväčším mestom na Slovensku a je po nej pomenovaná planétka (9543) Nitra.

Nitrais a city in western Slovakia, situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in the valley of the river Nitra. With a population of about 83,572, it is the fifth largest city in Slovakia. Nitra is also one of the oldest cities in Slovakia and the country's earliest political and cultural center. Today, it is a seat of (Nitra Region) and (Nitra District).

hist ria history
História-History

Nitra je mestom mimoriadneho historického významu. Počiatky jej osídlenia siahajú až do praveku, ako to dokumentujú početné archeologické nálezy na území mesta. Už pred 30 000 rokmi bola husto osídleným územím. Osady prvých roľníckych obyvateľov boli na území mesta už takmer pred 6 000 rokmi.

Oblasť dnešnej Nitry bola významným strediskom Keltov (už niekoľko storočí pred našim letopočtom), neskôr Germánov a nakoniec Slovanov. Bola sídlom prvých známych vládcov územia dnešného Slovenska - germánske kmene Kvádov (okolo r. 396 po Kr., sporné) a od 8. storočia do 1108 sídlo Nitrianskeho kniežatstva.

Inhabited for 6,000 years, Nitra has been a city of extraordinary historic importance. A large Celtic settlement was founded in the 4th century BCE in the locality Martinskývrch. Nitra is later (396 CE) mentioned in connection to the Germanic tribe of Quadi, as their possible capital.

The first Slavs arrived in the 5th century. Nitra became the capital of the Principality of Nitra, the oldest known independent state in the present-day Slovakia. The first known Christian church built by the Western or Eastern Slavs was consecrated in 828 at the seat of the ruling prince Pribina, and in the same year the town was first mentioned as Nitrawa. In 833, Pribina was ousted from Nitra by the Moravian prince MojmírI and both principalities were united into the early medieval empire of Great Moravia. The Principality of Nitra was usually given to the heir of the Great Moravian throne as an appanage. But the practice eventually threatened unity of Great Moravia. Using rich resources of Nitra, both Prince Svätopluk I and Prince Svätopluk II revolted against their formal sovereigns. The level of autonomy they enjoyed was considerable, as documented by the Papal correspondence, addressing Svätopluk I of Nitra in the same way as two contemporaneous rulers of independent countries (Rastislav of Great Moravia, and Koceľ of the Balaton Principality).

hlavn pamiatky

Hlavné pamiatky

Seminár Grand na Pribinovom námestí sa má množstvo historických stavieb a prírodných krás v okolí. Najznámejšie body záujmu sú Nitra hrad, Staré mesto a kopcami Zobor, s výhľadom na mesto.Pozoruhodné stavby čo sa nachádzajú v Nitre je katedrála hradu Nitra, piaristický kostol sv. Ladislava a priľahlého kláštora. Najstarší kostol mesta, bol postavený v 11.-12.storočí. Kláštor na Piaristickej ulici bol založený v 13. a 14. storočia. Jeho dominanta kostola sv Ladislava bola neskôr zničená ohňom a prestavaná v roku 1742-1748 v barokovom slohu. Dve veže boli tiež pridané. Na hlavnom oltári je socha s krásnou výzdobou, ktorej portréty Svätého Štefana a Ladislava sú z Maďarska. Interiér bol zrekonštruovaný v roku 1940.

main sights

Main sights

The Grand Seminary at Pribina's Square

The Grand Seminary at Pribina's Square

The city has the wealth of historic structures and natural beauty in the surroundings. The most notorious points of interest are the Nitra castle, the old town and the hill Zobor, overlooking the city.

Notable religious structures located in Nitra are St. Emmeram's Cathedral in Nitra castle, a Piarist church of St. Ladislaus and the adjacent monastery. The oldest church of the city is the Saint Stephen church, which was built in the 11th-12th century, while the fundamentum of the building was constructed in the 9th century. The monastery on Piaristicka street was founded in the 13th-14th century. Its dominant church of St. Ladislaus was later destroyed by a fire and remodelled in 1742-1748 in baroque style. Two towers were also added. The main altar has a beautiful statue ornamentation which the portraits of Saint Stephen and Ladislaus I of Hungary. The interior was renovated in 1940 and three modern frescos depicting themes from Slovak history of Nitra were created.