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Ocean Chemistry – Chapter 6. Fe 2+. Ca 2+. NO 3 -. OUTLINE. Foundations of Chemical Oceanography Periodic Table – Valence Electrons Water – It’s Unique Properties Dissolved Elements in SeaWater Sources & Sinks Carbon Dioxide & the WORLD Ocean. SeaSalt (Na + Cl - )

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outline
OUTLINE
  • Foundations of Chemical Oceanography
  • Periodic Table – Valence Electrons
  • Water – It’s Unique Properties
  • Dissolved Elements in SeaWater
  • Sources & Sinks
  • Carbon Dioxide & the WORLD Ocean
slide3

SeaSalt (Na+Cl-)

Maio Island, Cape Verde, Africa

-Nearly all minerals/ elements found in the Ocean. . ..

slide4
Foundations of Chemical Oceanography
    • Joseph Gay-Lussay (1778-1850)
      • Introduces the idea of the “WATER Column”
        • Denotes depth-dependency of many ocean properties
          • (esp. elements/minerals, e.g CaCO3 “calcite”)

ALGAE

Shells totally dissolve

slide5
“Liebig’s Law of Minimum”
    • What does it state?
      • Growth of plants controlled by a single element

(required by plant) - but available at LOWEST rate of supply

Challenge Question

In this schematic which element would be rate limiting?

outline6
OUTLINE
  • Foundations of Chemical Oceanography
  • Periodic Table – Valence Electrons
  • Water – It’s Unique Properties
  • Dissolved Elements in SeaWater
  • Sources & Sinks
  • Carbon Dioxide & the WORLD Ocean
slide7

Recall - Periodic Table _Valence Electrons

Outer valence electrons (= e-) participates in bonding of Elements

6 e- = (.)

e.g.

CO2 carbon dioxide

.. ..

O::C::O

‘‘ ‘’

Covalent bond

Sharing e- 

O=C=O

CO2

4 e- = (.)

outline8
OUTLINE
  • Foundations of Chemical Oceanography
  • Periodic Table – Valence Electrons
  • Water – It’s Unique Properties
  • Dissolved Elements in SeaWater
  • Sources & Sinks
  • Carbon Dioxide & the WORLD Ocean
slide9
Water – It’s Unique Properties

:

:

O

H

H

-

-

+

O-

-

-

H+

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

+

O-

-

H+

H+

+

-

+

Electro + part attract electro – part

(Opposites attract)

H+

+

+

+

H2O molecules form Hydrogen bonds with other H2O molecules. . .

(see above)  what makes water 

b/c of +/- nature of H2O = great at DISSOLVING substances

– aka UNIVERSAL SOLVENT (something that DISSOLVES)

slide10
Dissolving Power of H2O
    • Water ~ universal (solvent)
      • What trying to dissolve, aka = solute (e.g. salt)
      • When too much of solute/solvent  precipitation (e.g. sugar crystals or salt)

Compounds of Opposite charge molecules =

“ionic compounds” – these dissolve best in H2O

Anions (-) charge, e.g. Cl-

Cations (+) charge, e.g. Na+

slide11
Salt, a solute, dissolves in water, a solvent
    • Until a “saturation point” is reached
      • Challenge Question?
      • How can this be overcome?
        • Increase temp. . .
          • Solute dissolves
slide12
Airborne particles and the World’s Ocean
    • Aeolian (air/wind) Input
      • Red clay (to sediments)
      • trace elements ~Iron (Fe2+)
        • Rate limiting nutrient for

plankton  algae bloom?

      • With Iron comes
        • increased Plankton blooms

Plankton Blooms produce

Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS)

 Cloud condensation nuceli

-Influences cloud formation

MODIS satelite

Fe2+

Fe2+

Fe2+

Fe2+

Dust from

Africa . . .

bloom

bloom

outline13
OUTLINE
  • Foundations of Chemical Oceanography
  • Periodic Table – Valence Electrons
  • Water – It’s Unique Properties
  • Dissolved Elements in SeaWater
  • Sources & Sinks
  • Carbon Dioxide & the WORLD Ocean
slide14
Dissolved Elements of SeaWater
  • The major constituents (elements of SeaWater)
slide15
Dissolved Elements in SeaWater
  • The major constituents (elements of SeaWater)
    • Know the big 5 (conservative ~ lots)
slide16

Oceanographers

Use conductivity at diff. temps

To determine salinity

Throughout the oceans. . .

Salinity affects density 

Deep water - Ocean Circulation/Currents. . .Climate

To be continued. .

slide17
Minor Constituents of Seawater

Minor constituents (≤0.1 mMol/ kg, very dilute see Table 6.1)

  • trace elements (Iron, Silica)
    • (secondary metabolites – venoms, poisons)
  • Marine Natural Products
    • Cone Snail- Conus magnus
      • Conotoxins (ziconotide- Prialt®)
      • 1000Xs more potent then Morphine!

morphine

ziconotide

slide18
Biologically Important Nutrients: 2 classes:
    • Macronutrients
      • Nitrogen (N)
      • Phosphorous (P)
      • Potassium (K)
    • micronutrients
      • Iron (Fe)
      • Silica (Si)
      • Availability &

Supply of nutrients

Effect photosynth

in world ocean

More in Chap 13. . .

slide19
Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM)
    • Dissolved Carbon “C” from
      • bacteria decomposition
      • Leaky marine organisms (incontinent)
      • Terrestrial sources
      • Important in Carbon Cycle
      • Add to Oceans Color
        • Can be seen by satellite
        • Helps to track/model
        • Carbon Cycle Chp.14
          • CO2 – climate change
slide20
Dissolved Gasses - Challenge Questions
      • What are Zones of decreased and no dissolved Oxygen called?
        • 1) Hypoxic Zone – decreased O2 levels
        • 2) Anoxic Zone – no O2 ! 
      • Do gasses dissolve better with

increased or decreased temperature?

        • Decreased temperature

Lots of nutrients (Missip river runoff) lead to

Algae blooms - Zoo plankton - use up all O2 –

( Big fish suffocate)

slide21
Confirming your Knowledge
    • What are the 5 major elemental constituents of SeaH2O?
      • Cl, Na, S, Mg, Ca
      • What are the Macro and micronutrients?
        • N (nitrogen), P (phosphorous), K (potassium) (Macro)
        • Fe, Si (micro)
outline22
OUTLINE
  • Foundations of Chemical Oceanography
  • Periodic Table – Valence Electrons
  • Water – It’s Unique Properties
  • Dissolved Elements in SeaWater
  • Sources & Sinks
  • Carbon Dioxide & the WORLD Ocean
slide23
Sources ( provide) &Sinks (remove) Minerals etc.
    • The above determine concentration of elements in SeaWater
    • CONTINENTAL Weathering: A Source
      • Na from Continental Weathering
      • Cl- from Vents? Volcanoes? (acid rain)
        • not f/ river rocks (recycled as spray-Ocean Waves
slide24

Sources ( provide) &Sinks (remove) Minerals etc.

    • Hydrothermal Vents: A Source & SINK
      • +/- Minor source
      • Consume other elements

Lead, Sulfur, Copper, Iron, Cobalt, Ag

Mostly gypsum & Zinc

slide25
Residence Times of Elements
    • When sources/ sinks in balance – ocean is steady state
    • At steady state – can define the amt. of time

For total mass of an Element (e.g. Na) to be replaced

        • aka Residence Time (how long it is in the ocean)
    • Residence Time
      • = mass of element present / rate of input or removal
      • Na
        • 1.472 x 1011 kg yr-1 tons/ year / 2 x108 tons/yr-1 Na/year= 70 million years!
slide26
Final Thoughts
    • Turn in Long Lab Field Trip (HW-1)
    • Please do HW-2 (due July 7th)
    • Wed – Final Chemical Oceanography -CO2_The Oceans & Ocean Physics

Fe2+

NO3-

Ca2+