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National Kharif Conference on Agriculture 2012 Water management & Dry land farming 5 - 6 Mar., 2012. Maharashtra. Extent of dry land /rainfed areas under different rainfall zones. Rainfall pattern. Out of 12 months only 4 rainy months in a year In 4 rainy months only 40 rainy days
National Kharif Conference on Agriculture 2012 Water management & Dry land farming 5 - 6 Mar., 2012 Maharashtra
Rainfall pattern Out of 12 months only 4 rainy months in a year In 4 rainy months only 40 rainy days In 40 rainy days only 96 rainy hours i.e. in96 rainy hours means approximately 4 days in an year
Drought Prone Areas of the State (Source –Planning Dept)
Extent of Dry land area / Rainfed areas under different rainfall zone in Maharashtra State • Arid Zone - 1. 29 lakh ha. • ( 0.40 % to total area in India 317.09 lakh ha) • Semi Arid Zone – 189.58 lakh ha. • ( 19 % to total area in India 956.75 lakh ha) • first in India 6
Dimensions of the problem of Dry Land agriculture • Rainfed Area- 82% • Drought Prone Area- 52% • Degraded Soils- 42% • Rainfall Pattern Characterized by 2-3 dry spells & high intensity rain • Areas of low rainfall ( below 750 mm) constitute more than 52 % of total geographical area . • About 25 districts in State fall in the category of low rainfall area. • Even after providing all the irrigation potential in State 70 % area remains as rainfed. 7
Major Constraints of Dry land area / Rainfed areas • Climatic constraints • Variable rainfall – Annual rainfall varies greatly, More than • one third of total geographical area in State • receive rainfall less than 750 mm • Intensity and distribution - In general, more than 50 per • cent of total rainfall is usually received in 3 to 5 • rainy days • iii. Variations in monsoon behavior - Late onset of monsoon, • Early withdrawal of monsoon, • Prolonged dry spells • b) Soil Constraints • i. Inadequate soil moisture availability • ii. Poor organic matter content • iii. Poor soil fertility • iv. Soil deterioration due to erosion 8
Cultivation practices • i. Ploughing along the slope • ii. Application FYM in limited quantity • iii. Heavy weed infestation • iv. Lack of suitable varieties • d. Socio-economic constraints • i. Less access to inputs • ii. Non availability of credit in time • iii. The risk bearing capacity of dry land farmer is very • low 9
Fertility status of major nutrients was declining up to 1995-2000. By adopting remedial measures, now it is increased & crossed fertility status of 1981-85.
Available N is on the basis of percent Organic Carbon Content. Status - Available N is Moderate, Available Phosphorus is Low Available Potash is High in the soils of Maharashtra.
There is no percent Intensity of deficiency for Copper & Manganese Micro Nutrient .
Soil Erosion Status in Maharashtra State Major Dams 15
Extent of land degradation & other problem areas 42.5 % area is suffering from different degree of soil degradation
Extent of Soil Erosion Gully formation • Severe Erosion- 105 Lac Ha. • Soil loss : 373 Million ton/Yr * Nutrient Loss- 65% 17
Seasonwise Cropping Pattern Source - Chief Statistician, Commissionerate of Agril, Pune-1,2009-10
Changing Cropping Pattern Kh. CEREALS Last 15 Year 0.00 - 11.41 - 9.56 +5.61 Source - Chief Statistician, Commissionerate of Agril, Pune-1,2009-10
Changing Cropping Pattern Last 15 Year Kh. PULSES +2.64 - 0.79 - 0.57 Source - Chief Statistician, Commissionerate of Agril, Pune-1,2009-10
Changing Cropping Pattern Last 15 Year Kh. OILSEEDS +24.15 +20.44 - 1.83 - 1.60 Source - Chief Statistician, Commissionerate of Agril, Pune-1,2009-10
Changing Cropping Pattern Last 15 Year COTTON & SUGARCANE + 8.04 +4.97 Source - Chief Statistician, Commissionerate of Agril, Pune-1,2009-10
Changing Cropping Pattern Last 15 Year Rabi JOWAR, WHEAT & MAIZE - 8.01 +5.06 +0.86 Source - Chief Statistician, Commissionerate of Agril, Pune-1,2009-10
Changing Cropping Pattern Last 15 Year TOTAL CEREALS, PULSES & OIL SEEDS - 18.09 +7.07 +9.17 Source - Chief Statistician, Commissionerate of Agril, Pune-1,2009-10
Area under principal crops Average (03-04 to 07-08) Source - Chief Statistician, Commissionerate of Agril, Pune-1,2009-10
Districtwise Cropping intensity State Cropping intensity : 128.88 % Source: Economic survey of Maharashtra , 2009-10
State wise Irrigation (%) (Reference year : 2008-09) National Average : 45.3% (Source: Economic survey of Maharashtra , 2010-11)
Maharashtra: Water Statistics • Major & Medium Projects : 2488 • Minor Projects : 1469 • Total Potential created : 39.57 lakh Ha • Potential Utilised : 24.42 lakh Ha • Area under surface irrig. : 11.47 lakh • Net expd. Incurred : Rs. 73652 crore • Total GW Recharge : 3.09 lakh Ham • GW Draft : 1.33 lakh Ham • GW area irrig. : 25.46 Ha
District wise Irrigation (%) State Irrigation % : 17.80 % Source :- Director GSDA, Maharashtra ( 2007-08)
Indigenous and useful crops/plant varieties and practices being adopted by farmers Cultural • Putting of stones, stubbles as a surface mulch for moisture conservation. • Mixed sowing of different crops for minimizing risk. • Dry seeding at the time of late onset of monsoon. • Use of seed cum fertilizer drill for sowing of seed and fertilizer at a time. • Sowing of Rajgira seed for control of harali (Cynalon dactylon) and lavahala weed (Cyprus rotundas). • Application of irrigation to onion crops at the time of frost occurance
Indigenous and useful crops/plant varieties and practices being adopted by farmers IPM • Sowing of sorghum seeds in safflower, pigeonpea and chickpea crops for attracting the birds for biological control of insects. • Use of neem leaves in stored grain for control of grain pest. • Use of dummy man or woman for bird watching in field crops. • Spraying jaggery solution at the time of flowering for control of pod borer. Animal Husbandry • Use of ridge gourd leaves juice for healing wounds of the animals. • Use of juice of Gulvel for sheep, goat and their kids for control of diarrhea.
Management efforts made by state • 1. Rain Water Harvesting- • Massive Farm Fond programme under RKVY & MREGS • Construction of Check Dam under RKVY & other w/s prog • Repair / Renovation of Bodies in Eastern Vidarbha under RKVY & other programme. 2. Watershed Development Programme • IWMP ( GoI sponsored scheme) • NABARD-RIDF assisted Watershed development • Vidarbha watershed Mission, • Marathwada watershed Mission, • Accelerated Watershed Development Programme • NWDPRA & RVP ( GoI sponsored scheme) • 3. In-situ Moisture Conservation Practices –Award scheme to Villages for adoption of In-situ Moisture Conservation Practices 36
Farm Pond - rain water harvesting Initiatives under RKVY Region wise achievement Vidarbha – 35.33 % , Marathwada – 36.90 % & Rest of Maharashtra – 27.77 % • Provide protective irrigation for 86,000 ha. area. • The ground water table is increased by approx. 0.5 to 1 m. • Recharge of wells in the vicinity farm pond. • Useful for crop production in Kharpan patta of Vidarbha region.
Farm Pond for Protective Irrigation Greengram + Pigeonpea • Farm ponds constructed by Agril. Department • Stored rain water used for protective irrigation during dry spell • Enhanced crop and water productivity. 2009 38
Convergence of Various Schemes • 12871 Pump sets are supplied to the beneficiaries /group of beneficiaries from various schemes viz. NFSM, SCP etc. • 4174 Sprinkler sets are supplied from various schemes for protective irrigation. 39
Construction of Check Dam & Earthen Nala Bunds under diff. programme (constructed since 1992) Vidarbha – 19 % , Marathwada – 28 % & Rest of Maharashtra – 53 % • Cement check dams provide protective irrigation for av. 3,86,000 ha. area. • The ground water table is increased by approx. 1.5 to 2.5 m. • Recharge of wells in the vicinity due to check dam & Earthen nala bunds . • Useful for rainfed area. 40
Repair / Renovation of Bodies in Eastern Vidarbha under diff. programme Mauja- Chandi Block - Pavani Dist. Bhandara • Provide protective irrigation for av. 11,527 ha. area. • Useful for rainfed area. 41
Watershed Development programme • Very high priority has been accorded to the holistic and sustainable • development of rainfed areas based on the Watershed Approach. • Soil & water Conservation , Productivity enhancement and livelihood activities. • Centrality of community participation. • Capacity building & technology inputs. Rs. 4947 Cr. Sanction for Programme 42
Crop wise area under micro irrigation Area under Drip : 6.95 Lakh ha. Area under Sprinkler : 2.99 Lakh ha. Total MI : 9.94 Lakh ha. Source – Director of Agril,( Horti.) Pune-5 -2009-10
Area under fruit crops upto2010-11 Area : Lac ha. Highest : Sindhudurg (72%) Lowest : Gondia (1.05%) Source – Director of Agril,( Horti.) Pune-5 -2009-10
Major Horticultural Crops Source – Director of Agril,( Horti.) Pune-5 -2009-10
Plantation under EGS Horticulture(% Area) Area : Lac ha. Source – Director of Agril,( Horti.) Pune-5 -2009-10
EGS linked Horticulture Development Programme Plantation since 1991 to Nov. 2011 : 15.72 lakh ha. No. of Beneficiaries : 20.88 lakh Expenditure : 1723 crores Man days created : 75 crores Villages covered : 40,412 Productive area : 9.80 lakh ha. Total production : 108 lakh MT
Fruit Crops included under EGS Dry Lands Crops:- Mango, Cashew nut, Ber, Custard apple, Anola, Tamarind, Jackfruit, Cokum, Jamun, Wood apple, Jojoba, Bambu, & Jatropha. EGS Total EGS Dry land
Schemes Included 100 Crore plantation programme 2012-13 & 2013-14 No. of plants (in Crores) The programme will bring approx. 5 lac ha. waste land area under plantation besides EGS Horticulture
Proposed crops for Plantation * Dryland fruit crops 1. Mango 2. Cashew 3. Ber 4. Custard apple 5. Anola 6. Tamarind 7. Wood apple 8. Jamun 9. Kokam 10. Jack fruit * Agroforestry Crops 1. Bamboo 2. Jatropha 3. Teak 4. Neem 5. Drum strick 6. Hadga * Medicinal Plants 1. Arjun 2. Asan 3. Ashoka 4. Bahera 5. Bael 6. Hirada 7. Tetoo 8. Karanj