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Introduction to the Power Flow Problem. Smith College, EGR 325 April 3, 2006. Objectives. Introduce the power flow problem Numerical solution – issues? Investigate two power flow programs PowerWorld MATPower. V. I. Complex Power – Phasor Domain. IMPORTANT  is the power factor angle.

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Introduction to the Power Flow Problem


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    1. Introduction to the Power Flow Problem Smith College, EGR 325April 3, 2006

    2. Objectives • Introduce the power flow problem • Numerical solution – issues? • Investigate two power flow programs • PowerWorld • MATPower

    3. V I Complex Power – Phasor Domain IMPORTANT is the power factor angle Real Power Reactive Power

    4. Power Flow Analysis • We know • The system topology (the circuit diagram) • The impedance of each line • The load at each load bus (S = P + jQ) • The capability of each generator (P, V) • We want to know • The output of each generator (S) • The voltage at each bus (V = V) • The power flow on each line (Pflow)

    5. Real Power Flow Equations

    6. Power Flow Analysis • Data needs? • Uses?

    7. Real Power Flow Equations • How many equations and how many unknowns? • Numerical methods • Lack of convergence • Slack bus • Definition • Mathematical and physical role

    8. Running a Power Flow Program • Programs created in the days of FORTRAN programming • Input data one of two standard formats • IEEE • PTI • Output data format designed by the programmer • ** Cases may or may not converge! **

    9. Running a Power Flow Program • We will use two popular programs • MATPower • tabular data input and output • relatively easy to use • PowerWorld • visual • more difficult to use • Terminology • One-line diagrams • per unit system (normalize all values)

    10. Power System Diagrams • Circuit vs. one-line diagram Arrows are used to show loads Generators are shown as circles Transmission lines are shown as a single line

    11. Power System Diagrams • Circuit vs. one-line diagram

    12. Summary • Introduction to the power flow problem and programs • Numerical methods • Significance of lack of convergence • Slack bus