Cardiovascular System. Serving Our Body’s Transportation Needs. Anatomy of the heart. Layers of the heart. Pericardium- two serous membranes that prevent friction between the heart and the cavity Epicardium -outermost layer Myocardium-muscle flesh inner layer Endocardium-innermost
Serving Our Body’s Transportation Needs
layer of the heart
The pulmonary circulation
The systemic circulation
The Circulatory System
The right heart pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation.
Low pressure, low resistance from the body to the heart
High pressure from the heart to the lungs
The left heart pumps blood into the systemic circulation.
High pressure, high resistance from the heart to the body
Low pressure from the lungs to heart
Blood vessels can be
classified according to
size, location and
Arteries are large diameter, thick-walled vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
Arterioles are small, thick-walled vessels that represent the major part of vascular resistance. These distribute blood to various organs.
pressure and blood
flow to specific tissues
Capillaries are extremely small, extremely thin-walled vessels (one cell thick) that allow exchange of gases, nutrients, and other small molecules between the blood stream and tissues.
The transfer of nutrients and wastes takes place here
Increases in capillary hydrostatic pressure or capillary permeability can lead to edema.
Edema is a swelling of fluid in the body’s tissues (usually in the legs and feet)
Venules are small thin-walled vessels that serve to bring blood back to the heart. These vessels are highly stretchable (along with veins) and contain a large fraction of the blood volume.
heart is pumping blood the rest
of the body
Stage 2 occurs (> 160/100)
American Heart Association (AHA)