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Cardiovascular System. Serving Our Body’s Transportation Needs. Anatomy of the heart. Layers of the heart. Pericardium- two serous membranes that prevent friction between the heart and the cavity Epicardium -outermost layer Myocardium-muscle flesh inner layer Endocardium-innermost

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cardiovascular system

Cardiovascular System

Serving Our Body’s Transportation Needs

layers of the heart
Layers of the heart
  • Pericardium- two serous membranes that prevent friction between the heart and the cavity
  • Epicardium-outermost layer
  • Myocardium-muscle flesh inner layer
  • Endocardium-innermost

layer of the heart

(contains trabeculae


blood flow pattern
Blood flow pattern

fetal circulation
Fetal Circulation
  • As the blood from the inferior vena cava enters the right atrium, a large proportion of it is shunted directly into the left atrium through an opening called the foramen ovale.
The circulatory system consists of two separate circuits linked in series:

The pulmonary circulation

The systemic circulation

The Circulatory System

pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary Circulation

The right heart pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation.

Low pressure, low resistance from the body to the heart

High pressure from the heart to the lungs

systemic circulation
Systemic Circulation

The left heart pumps blood into the systemic circulation.

High pressure, high resistance from the heart to the body

Low pressure from the lungs to heart

blood vessels
Blood Vessels

Blood vessels can be

classified according to

size, location and


tissue layers of blood vessels
Tissue Layers of Blood Vessels
  • Tunica adventitia- outermost layers
  • Tunica media-middle layers
  • Tunica intima-innermost layers



blood vessels1
Blood Vessels

Arteries are large diameter, thick-walled vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

blood vessels2
Blood Vessels

Arterioles are small, thick-walled vessels that represent the major part of vascular resistance. These distribute blood to various organs.

Maintains blood

pressure and blood

flow to specific tissues

blood vessels3
Blood Vessels

Capillaries are extremely small, extremely thin-walled vessels (one cell thick) that allow exchange of gases, nutrients, and other small molecules between the blood stream and tissues.

The transfer of nutrients and wastes takes place here

Increases in capillary hydrostatic pressure or capillary permeability can lead to edema.

Edema is a swelling of fluid in the body’s tissues (usually in the legs and feet)

blood vessels4
Blood Vessels

Venules are small thin-walled vessels that serve to bring blood back to the heart. These vessels are highly stretchable (along with veins) and contain a large fraction of the blood volume.

blood vessels veins
Blood Vessels: Veins
  • Veins have 4 layers of


  • 2 of the largest veins are the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. Both of these veins pour deoxygenated blood back to the right atrium
coronary circulation
Coronary Circulation
  • Blood supply is sent to the heart itself through the coronary arteries and back to the veins where it is to be oxygenated
  • Occurs simultaneously as the

heart is pumping blood the rest

of the body

  • Diagnosis Method Coronary Angiograpy:
the hearts sound
The hearts’ sound
  • This occurs when the bicuspid and tricuspid valves simultaneously close with a “lub” sound
  • This occurs when the pulmonary and arotic valve simultaneously close with a “dub” sound
  • We call this the heart’s sound “Lub/Dub”
cardiac cycle heart beat
Cardiac Cycle: Heart Beat
  • Def: The beginning of blood flow/pressure from one heart beat to the next
  • Systole: occurs when either both atrium or ventricles are contracting, this lasts for 3/10ths of a second
  • Diastole: occurs when either both atrium or ventricles are relaxed , this lasts 5/10ths of a second
  • Total 8/10ths of a second
electricity and the heart
Electricity and the Heart
  • The conduction of electrical impulses begins at the Sinoatrial node (SA node). This is where the right atrium is located.
  • Then it moves its way down the right atrium to the Atrioventricular node (AV node)
  • Next the electric impulse moves down the Bundle of Hiss (in septum) to separate right and left bundles towards the apex of the heart and finally to the Purkinje Fibers
  • Heart Arrhythmia
blood pressure abnormalities
Blood Pressure Abnormalities
  • Normal BP is 120(Systolic)/80 (Diastolic)
  • Hypotension- blood pressure is too low (<85/55)
  • Hypertension-blood pressure is too high Stage 1 occurs (>140/90)

Stage 2 occurs (> 160/100)

  • Emergency (>180/110)

American Heart Association (AHA)

reading an ecg ekg
Reading an ECG/EKG

PQRST scheme

  • P: Electrical impulse spreading across the R. atrium
  • QRS: Electrical impulse passing through both ventricles: Ventricular Contraction
  • T: Recovery of the ventricles
ecg ekg
  • Testing for heart conduction Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
abnormal heart rates
Abnormal Heart Rates
  • Bradycardia- when the heart is abnormally slower than the average, but still has a PQRST wave
  • Tachycardia- when thet heart is abnormally faster than average, but still has a PQRST wave
  • Heart fibrillation- Fluttering of the heart with an abnormal PQRST wave