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UNCLOS. Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law.

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Law of the Sea and

International Marine Environmental Law


The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place from 1973 through 1982.


The Law of the Sea Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations in theiruse of theworld's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses,the environment, and the management of marinenatural resources.


UNCLOS came into force in 1994

To date, 162 countries and the European Community have joined in the Convention.


operational role in the implementation of the Convention bythe International Maritime Organization, the International Whaling Commission, and the International Seabed Authority


Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law

Exclusive Economic Zone

200 miles



Contiguous Zone

Territorial Sea

High Seas



Deep Seabed

Continental Shelf

(The Area)



Continental Rise

Note: In some areas the continental shelf, slope or rise may extend beyond the 200 mile exclusive Economic zone.



Breadth of the Territorial Sea

Every State has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles, measured from baselines determined in accordance with this Convention.


Contiguous zone

1. In a zone contiguous to its territorial sea, described as the contiguous zone, the coastal State may exercise the control necessary to:

(a) Prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations

within its territory or territorial sea;

(b) Punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or

territorial sea.

2. The contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.


Breadth of the exclusive economic zone

The exclusive economic zone shall not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

The EEZ is optional and its existence depends upon an actual claim.


Beyond State Territory:


•Exclusive Economic Zone

• Continental Shelf

• High Seas

• The Area


Exclusive Economic Zone: resources

About 90 per cent of living marine resources are caught within 200 miles off the coast.

More than 100 coastal States (out of ~140) claimed an exclusive economic zone.


Exclusive Economic Zone: rights

Art. 56 (1) UNCLOS: “In the exclusive economic zone, the coastal state has:

(a) sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the sea-bed and of the sea-bed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents and winds; […]”


The exclusive economic zone enjoys the freedoms of the high seas (Art. 87 UNCLOS), apart from fishing


Meaning of innocent passage

Passage is innocent so long as it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the Coastal State.

Such passage shall take place in conformity with this Convention and with other rules of international law.


Continental Shelf: definition

Art. 76 (1) UNCLOS: “The continental shelf of a coastal State comprises the sea-bed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance.”


Continental Shelf: interest

The continental shelf carries substantial oil and gas deposits in many areas.



  • Important articles
  • High seas application
  • Freedom of highseas
  • Invalidity of claims of sovereignty
  • over the high seas
  • Right of navigation
  • Nationality of ships
  • Status of ships
  • Duties of the flag State
  • Duty to render assistance

Prohibition of the transport of slaves

Prohibition of the transport of slaves

  • Prohibition of the transport of slaves
  • Definition of piracy
  • Illicit traffic in narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances
  • Unauthorized broadcasting from the high seas
  • Right of visit
  • Right to lay submarine cables and pipelines





Right to fish on the high seas

Conservation of the living resources of the high seas


High Seas: application

Art. 86 UNCLOS: “The provisions of this Part apply to all parts of the sea that are not included in the exclusive economic zone, in the territorial sea or in the internal

waters of a State […].”


High Seas: freedoms

Art. 87 UNCLOS:

1. “The high seas are open to all States, whether coastal or land-locked. It comprises, inter alia, both for coastal and landlocked States:

(a) freedom of navigation;

(b) freedom of overflight;

(c) freedom to lay submarine cables and pipelines, subject to Part VI;


(d) freedom to construct artificial islands and other installations permitted under international law, subject to Part VI;

(e) freedom of fishing, subject to the conditions laid down in section 2;

(f) freedom of scientific research, subject to Parts VI and XIII.

2. These freedoms shall be exercised by all States with due regard for the interests of other States in their exercise of the freedom of the high seas, and also with due regard for the rights under this Convention with respect to activities in the Area.


High Seas: status of ships

Art. 92 (1) UNCLOS: “Ships shall sail under the flag of one State only.

A ship may not change its flag during a voyage or while in a port of call, save in the case of a real transfer of ownership or change of registry.


High Seas: nationality of ships

Art. 91 (1) UNCLOS: “[…] Ships have the nationality of the State whose flag they are entitled to fly. […].”


High Seas: flags of convenience

Flags of convenience are mainly used as a means of:

– avoiding payment of taxes and statutory wage-rates

– avoiding international standards, which are not accepted by the flag State


High Seas: genuine link

Art. 91 (1) UNCLOS: “[…] There must exist a genuine link between the State and the ship.”


1) The act of registration alone does

not satisfy the genuine link requirement;

2) Conceptually, ownership of a vessel

may constitute an element of the

genuine link;

3) The final purpose of the genuine link

requirement is effective control and



Duties of the flag State

1. Every State shall effectively exercise its jurisdiction and control in administrative, technical and social matters over ships flying its flag.

2. In particular every State shall:

(a) maintain a register of ships containing the names and particulars of ships flying its flag, except those which are excluded from generally accepted international regulations on account of their small size; and

(b) assume jurisdiction under its internal law over each ship flying its flag and its master, officers and crew in respect of administrative, technical and social matters concerning the ship.


3. Every State shall take such measures for ships flying its flag as are necessary to ensure safety at sea with regard, inter alia, to:

(a) the construction, equipment and seaworthiness of ships;

(b) the manning of ships, labour conditions and the training of crews, taking into account the applicable international instruments;

(c) the use of signals, the maintenance of communications and the prevention of collisions.


4. Such measures shall include those necessary to ensure:

(a) that each ship, before registration and thereafter at appropriate intervals, is surveyedby a qualified surveyor of ships, and has on board such charts, nautical publications and navigational equipment and instruments as are appropriate for the safe navigation of the ship;

(b) that each ship is in the charge of a master and officers who possess appropriate qualifications, in particular in seamanship, navigation, communications and marine engineering, and that the crew is appropriate in qualification and numbers for the type, size, machinery and equipment of the ship;


(c) that the master, officers and, to the extent appropriate, the crew are fully conversant with and required to observe the applicable international regulations concerning the safety of life at sea, the prevention of collisions, the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution, and the maintenance of communications by radio.


Piracy consists of any of the following acts:

(a)any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft, and directed:

(i) on the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft;

(ii) against a ship, aircraft, persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State;

(b) any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft;


Duty to render assistance

  • Every State shall require the master of a ship flying its flag, in so far as he can do so without serious danger to the ship, the crew or the passengers:
  • (a) to render assistance to any person found at sea in danger of being lost;
  • (b) to proceed with all possible speed to the rescue of persons in distress, if informed of their need of assistance, in so far as such action may reasonably be expected of him;
  • (c) after a collision, to render assistance to the other ship, its crew and its passengers and, where possible, to inform the other ship of the name of his own ship, its port of registry and the nearest port at which it will call.

2. Every coastal State shall promote the establishment, operation and maintenance of an adequate and effective search and rescue service regarding safety on and over the sea and, where circumstances so require, by way of mutual regional arrangements cooperate with neighbouring States for this purpose.


Unauthorized broadcasting from the high seas

"unauthorized broadcasting" means the transmission of sound radio or television broadcasts from a ship or installation on the high seas intended for reception by the general public contrary to international regulations, but excluding the transmission of distress calls.


Any person engaged in unauthorized broadcasting may be prosecuted before the court of:

(a) the flag State of the ship;

(b) the State of registry of the installation;

(c) the State of which the person is a national;

(d) any State where the transmissions can be received; or

(e) any State where authorized radio communication is suffering interference.


Right of visit

1. A warship which encounters on the high seas a foreign ship, other than a ship entitled to complete immunity (war ships, government non-commercial ships), is not justified in boarding it unless there is reasonable ground for suspecting that:

(a) the ship is engaged in piracy;

(b) the ship is engaged in the slave trade;

(c) the ship is engaged in unauthorized broadcasting and the flag State of the warship has jurisdiction under article 109;

(d) the ship is without nationality; or

(e) though flying a foreign flag or refusing to show its flag, the ship is, in reality, of the same nationality as the warship.


In the event of fouling a submarine cable, the anchor and gear should be slipped and abandoned without attempting to cut the cable.

High voltages are present in submarine cables other than power transmission cables and serious risk exists of loss of life or severe burns from electric shock if any attempt to cut the cable is made.

No claim in respect of injury or damage sustained through such interference with a submarine cable will be entertained.

submarine cables or pipelines
Submarine cables or pipelines

Mariners are warned that every care should be taken to avoid anchoring or fishing in the vicinity of submarine cables or pipelines, even though there may be no specific prohibitions against doing so.

Damaging an under-sea pipeline or cable would rate as a national disaster and very severe criminal penalties may apply. In addition the vessel which has fouled an under water feature will be exposed to extreme explosion or electrocution risks.


In the event of fouling a pipeline, the anchor or gear should be slipped and abandoned without attempting to get it clear.

Any excessive force applied to the pipeline could result in a rupture; in the case of a gas pipeline the consequential release of gas at high pressure like an explosion could cause severe damage or loss of the vessel.

There would be an accompanying severe and immediate fire hazard.


Claims as a Result of Loss of Gear

In order to afford greater protection to submarine cables and pipelines, and to avoid extensive repairs and disruption of communication or supplies, the attention of mariners, and particularly fishermen, is drawn to “Section 8” of the Submarine Cables and Pipelines Protection Act 1996.

This section entitles the owner of a ship from which an anchor, net, or any fishing gear has been sacrificed (to avoid damaging a submarine cable or pipeline), to be indemnified for any loss by the owner of the cable or pipeline, provided cautionary measures have been taken beforehand.


To establish a claim to such indemnification, the following actions must carried out

  • A statement supported by the evidence of the crew, should, wherever possible, be drawn up immediately after the occurrence, and the master must, within 24 hours after his return to, or next putting into port, make a declaration to the proper authorities.
  • The latter shall communicate the information to the consular authorities of the country to which the owner of the cable belongs.
  • (b) The declaration must give the full particulars of the occurrence and should be made to a Maritime Department.
examination type q a
Examination type Q&A

What is 'UNCLOS'?

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a treaty document which attempts to codify the international law of the sea. It came into force internationally on 16 November 1994.


2. What does UNCLOS do, basically?

It sets the width of the;

Territorial Sea at 12 nautical miles;

a Contiguous Zone at 24 nautical miles from the baseline.

It defines innocent passage through the Territorial Sea and defines transit passage through international straits.


d) It defines Archipelagic States and allows for passage through Archipelagic Waters.

It establishes Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) extending to 200 nautical miles from baselines.

It defines the Continental Shelf and extends jurisdiction over the resources of the shelf beyond 200 miles where appropriate.

It defines the legal status of the High Seas and establishes regulations for the control of marine pollution.


What are the 'High Seas'?

All parts of the sea not included in the EEZ, Territorial Sea or Internal Waters of a state, or in the Archipelagic Waters of an Archipelagic State.


What are the 'High Seas'?

All parts of the sea not included in the EEZ, Territorial Sea or Internal Waters of a state, or in the Archipelagic Waters of an Archipelagic State.


What 'freedoms' does 'freedom of the High Seas' comprise?

Freedom of.

(1) navigation;

(2) overflight;

(3) to lay submarine cables and pipelines;

(4) to construct artificial islands and other installations permitted under international law;

(5) fishing; and (6) scientific research.


What basic right does any merchant ship have in a coastal state's Territorial Sea?

The right of innocent passage through it.


You are on passage through the Territorial Sea of a coastal state. In what circumstances could the coastal state exercise criminal jurisdiction over your vessel?

If the consequences of a crime on or by my ship extend to the coastal state;

if a crime on or by my ship disturbs the peace of the country or the good order of the territorial sea;

if I (as master) or an agent of my vessel's flag state requests the coastal state to exercise jurisdiction; or

if jurisdiction is necessary to suppress the illicit traffic of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances.


What resources may be extracted Where a coastal state claims a Continental Shelf?

Mineral and other non-living resources of the sea-bed and subsoil together with living organisms belonging to sedentary species.


What is an 'EEZ'?

An Exclusive Economic Zone, within which the coastal state has rights and duties in relation to natural resources. Freedom of navigation is the same as on the high seas, but in the interests of safety near offshore installations, coastal states may restrict navigation in the EEZ.

the end

The End

By Captain Thein Win