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January 8. Standard 1. Conflicts between regional and national interest in the development of democracy in the United States. 1.1 14 slides. Varying regional c haracteristics Religious Social Political Economic. British Colonies. 3 Colonial Regions New England Massachusetts

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standard 1

Standard 1

Conflicts between regional and national interest in the development of democracy in the United States.

1 1 14 slides
1.1 14 slides
  • Varying regional characteristics
    • Religious
    • Social
    • Political
    • Economic
british colonies
British Colonies
  • 3 Colonial Regions
    • New England
      • Massachusetts
    • Mid-Atlantic
      • Pennsylvania
    • Southern
      • Virginia and South Carolina
  • Varying motivations for settlement impacted each region
  • First successful English settlement was Jamestown, VA in 1607
    • Settled for economic benefit
    • In search of gold
colonial religion
Colonial Religion
  • Not every colony was founded for religious purposes
    • Most people came to improve economic and social standing
  • “Religious Freedom” did not have the same meaning as today
    • Pilgrims and Puritans came for freedom for themselves, not for all religions
  • Colonial religious intolerance was a prime factor in establishing the principle of separation of church and state after the American Revolution
colonial religion1
Colonial Religion

New England

  • Very little religious tolerance
  • Puritans wanted to create a “city on the hill”, a community that England could look to as a model of godliness
  • The community couldn’t be defiled by people with other beliefs
  • Exiled dissenters
    • Roger Williams- Believed the government couldn’t force religion
    • Anne Hutchinson- Believed individuals could interpret the Bible
colonial religion2
Colonial Religion


  • More religious diversity and tolerance
  • Pennsylvania was founded by Quakers (William Penn)
  • Everyone had a inner light which fostered tolerance
  • Act of Toleration- Lord Baltimore of Maryland promoted the Act in order to protect the rights of Catholics in the colony
colonial religion3
Colonial Religion


  • Religion did not play a large role until the Great Awakening (1730s)
    • Revival meetings where 1,000s would attend
    • Placed an emphasis on higher education
  • The Church of England was the established church of the South
colonial society
Colonial Society

New England & Mid-Atlantic

  • Society was centered around religious beliefs
  • Increased immigration from various countries caused class distinctions
  • The church fostered the development of towns and educational institutions
colonial society1
Colonial Society


  • A hierarchical social structure was created due to the South's reliance on indentured servants and later on slaves
    • Indentured Servant- agrees to serve 4-7 years to pay off a debt (usually the cost of transportation to the colonies)
    • Slave- originally came from Africa to Barbados then to the colonies
  • The plantation system impeded the development of towns and schools due to their large land holdings
  • All southern colonies became reliant on slaves
colonial politics
Colonial Politics
  • Colonial political development was impacted by the colonists experiences in England
    • Magna Carta(Medieval bill of rights) and Parliament (representatives)
  • Distance from England fostered the development of colonial governments
  • Civil War in England (1600s) and salutary (beneficial) neglect helped undermine the authority of the king
    • Increased the importance of colonial assemblies, which were able to control the royal governor appointed by the king
  • British subjects in the colonies were loyal to the Crown
    • Believed that only their colonial assemblies had the power to tax them
colonial politics1
Colonial Politics

New England

  • Town Meetings
    • Representatives were sent from each town
  • Due to the emphasis on mercantilism and banking, political power was more diverse
    • Merchants and bankers had the most power
colonial politics2
Colonial Politics


  • Virginia’s House of Burgesses
    • Only landowners could vote
  • Dependence on slavery and the plantation economy meant those with the most land had the most power
  • Coastal planters had more political power than ordinary farmers
colonial economics
Colonial Economics
  • Economic development depended on geographic location, natural resources, and human capital (population & money) available
colonial economics1
Colonial Economics
  • The three colonial regions developed an interdependent network of trade
    • Coastal trade
      • New England- Boston
      • Mid-Atlantic- New York
      • Southern- Charlestown
    • British Caribbean
    • Africa
    • Europe
colonial economics2
Colonial Economics

New England

  • Rocky soil, cold winters, and short growing seasons
    • Subsistence farming
  • Large forests
    • Shipbuilding
  • Vast river systems and harbors/seas
    • Fishing
    • Merchants
  • They were not dependent on slavery


  • Fertile soil, moderate climate, and large families
    • Exported crops
  • They were not dependent on slavery
colonial economics3
Colonial Economics


  • Vast land, rivers, fertile soil, and slave labor
    • Cash crops (grown on large scale for sale)
      • Tobacco
      • Rice
      • Indigo
    • Shipped to New England to be sent back to Europe
  • Cotton was not produced on a large scale until the late 1700s
1 2 9 slides
1.2 9 slides
  • Representative Government and Political Rights in the Magna Carta and English Bill of Rights
  • Conflict between the Colonial Legislatures and British Parliament over taxation
colonial government influences
Colonial Government Influences
  • The Magna Cartarecognized the rights of Englishmen
    • Consulted on the levying of taxes
    • Rights were protected by a jury of peers
  • The rule of law is a principle that states every member of society must obey the law, even the king
    • Rules are clear, well-understood, and fairly enforced
  • The English Bill of Rights reinforced previous beliefs and introduced new freedoms
    • Consultation of levying of taxes
    • The power of the king is limited by the Parliament
    • Religious freedom
early representative governments
Early Representative Governments
  • Virginia House of Burgesses
    • Maintained order in the colony and attracted new colonists
    • Because only property owners could vote, it created a social elitist society
    • The appointment of a royal governor in the 1620s further limited democracy in Virginia
  • Mayflower Compact
    • Exemplified the principle that a government derives its authority from the people
    • Puritan ideology supported democracy in Massachusetts Bay and spread with the Puritan faith
    • Puritan church was governed by male members and ruled through town meetings
    • Each town sent representatives to the General Court in Boston
      • Originally, only Puritan members attended but it was later expanded to include non-Puritan property owners
politics in england
Politics in England
  • English Civil War
    • The English government left the colonies alone to develop their own governments
  • Glorious Revolution
    • Due to 100 years of struggle between the King and Parliament
    • King James was overthrown by William and Mary
      • Agreed to abide by the English Bill of Rights
      • Recognized the supremacy of Parliament and its right to levy taxes
politics in england1
Politics in England
  • John Locke
    • Natural Rights
      • Life, liberty, and property
    • Social Contract Theory
      • The government governs with the consent of the governed (power comes from the citizens)
  • Salutary Neglect
    • Colonists governed themselves
    • Little or no interference from England
    • Colonial assemblies had the power to tax the citizens
    • Ignored tariffs and smuggled goods into and from port
    • The ending of this policy is what fueled colonial revolt against the Crown
the french and indian war
The French and Indian War
  • 1754-1763, The English fought the French and many of the Native American tribes over control of North America
  • English won control of land east of the Mississippi River
  • The Proclamation of 1763 banned colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
  • Caused the Crown to go into extreme debt
actions and reactions
Actions and Reactions
  • Sugar Act- 1764
    • Established admiralty courts which violated the right to a trial by jury
    • Colonists reacted by protesting and increased smuggling
  • Stamp Act- 1765
    • Direct tax on official documents
    • Colonists reacted by
      • Protest
        • “no taxation without representation”
      • Creation of the Sons and Daughters of Liberty
        • Organized and supported protests
      • The Stamp Act Congress
        • Declaration of Rights and Grievances
      • Boycott
actions and reactions1
Actions and Reactions
  • Stationing of British Troops- 1763
    • Leftover from the French and Indian War
    • Troops stationed in Boston were taunted by an angry mob, and retaliated by firing shots into the crowed, killing five colonists (Boston Massacre, 1770)
  • Townshend Acts- 1767
    • Taxed certain imports and stationed troops at major colonial ports
    • Colonists continued to boycott
  • Tea Act- 1773
    • The Crown gave the East India Company a monopoly on the tea trade which caused prices to decrease in the hopes of lessening boycotts
    • Colonists reacted by dumping 18,000 lbs. of tea into the Boston Harbor (Boston Tea Party)
actions and reactions2
Actions and Reactions
  • Coercive “Intolerable” Acts- 1774
    • Due to the Boston Tea Party, King George III and Parliament wanted to punish the colonists
      • Shut down the Boston Harbor
      • Quartering Act- allowed British solders to stay in vacant private homes and buildings
      • Martial Law- Boston was forced to obey rules imposed by military forces
    • Colonists reacted by forming the First Continental Congress
      • 54 delegates drafted a declaration of colonial rights
      • Stated colonists could fight back if the British used force
  • Lexington and Concord- 1775
    • “shot heard ‘round the world”
    • First shots of the Revolutionary War between British soldiers and Colonial Minutemen
colonists goals
Colonists’ Goals
  • The colonists were not protesting against the taxes because they thought the taxes were too high nor were they attempting to form a new kind of government
  • The colonists were trying to hold onto the government that they had developed during the time of salutary neglect
  • The colonists did not want to have representation in Parliament because they would have been outvoted
  • The colonists wanted British recognition that only their colonial legislatures had the right to impose taxes on the colonial citizens
1 3 4 slides
1.3 4 slides
  • Impact of the Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution
the declaration of independence
The Declaration of Independence
  • The Declaration was written to further the cause of the colonists’ fight with Britain, which was already in its 2nd year
    • Addressed to those within the colonies who remained loyal to the king or were uncommitted to the cause of independence
  • Based on the ideas of John Locke
    • Principles of equality
    • Natural rights
      • Life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness
the declaration of independence1
The Declaration of Independence
  • Outlined the idea of limited government
    • The purpose of a government is to secure rights
    • It is the right of the people to alter or abolish the government if those rights aren’t protected
  • Blamed King George III, not Parliament, for violating the rights of the colonists
    • Lists actions that “He” did to the colonists
    • Try and break the bonds between the King and the loyalists
  • Unify the new nation against a common enemy
    • The charges listed are the events that led to the outbreak of war
the declaration of independence2
The Declaration of Independence
  • By declaring independence, America was able to enter into an alliance with France
    • The French king did not support the ideals of democracy
    • Started supporting America after its victory at Saratoga
    • Wanted to defeat its historical enemy
  • The alliance provided French naval support and supplies
    • Made the American victory at Yorktown possible
post war impact
Post War Impact
  • States began to put the principles of the Declaration into practice
    • Passed laws that gradually emancipated slaves (North)
    • Freedom of religion
    • Property-owning male suffrage
  • “all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights… [to] life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”
    • Rally cry for those denied their rights
1 4 13 slides
1.4 13 slides
  • Dissatisfactions with the Confederation government
  • Improvements in the Constitution of 1787
  • Compromises of the Philadelphia Convention and the ratification of the Constitution
the first form of government
The First form of Government
  • The Articles of Confederation was designed to protect the rights Americans had fought for during the Revolution
the confederation government
The Confederation Government
  • Created by the Continental Congress, the Articles of Confederation established a weak central government
    • Created as a direct result of the experiences that led to the Revolution
      • Americans were fighting to preserve the rights of their colonial assemblies
      • They believed sovereignty rested in their state governments
    • The Confederation government was unable to meet the needs of the nation
confederation government successes
Confederation Government Successes
  • Large and small states disputed over land claims in the west
    • The Confederation absorbed all land claims and created the national domain
      • The Land Ordinances established a method for distribution of this land
      • The Northwest Ordinances set a precedent for the creation of new states and declared slavery illegal in the old Northwest Territory
        • First effort of the government to prohibit slavery
confederation government successes1
Confederation Government Successes
  • The Confederation government under the Second Continental Congress proved effective during the Revolution
    • States had a common cause
  • The Confederation was satisfactory at the state level
    • States wrote new constitutions and passed laws that met their needs
confederation government successes2
Confederation Government Successes
  • The Confederation effectively negotiated the Treaty of Paris 1783 (peace treaty after the Revolution)
  • When the fighting and common cause ended, Americans found that the Confederation government was too weak to meet the needs of the growing nation
    • 54 delegates met at the Philadelphia Convention to fix the Articles of Confederation
    • They ended up starting from scratch and created the Constitution of 1787
    • Founders/Framers/Founding Fathers
confederation government problems
Confederation Government Problems

1. No Standing Army

  • Trade between Britain and America halted after the Revolution which meant many Americans were unable to pay their mortgages and state taxes
    • Led to Shays Rebellion in Massachusetts (1787)- Farmers marched to close the local courts and prevent foreclosure proceedings on farms
    • This frightened many of the elite and prompted their support for a stronger national government that could preserve peace


  • The national government was given the power to levy taxes so they could afford an army and protect US interests
confederation government problems1
Confederation Government Problems

2. No Federal Taxation

  • The Confederation did not have the power to tax the states
    • Unable to support a standing army
  • The government could request money from states but they were not obligated to pay anything


  • The national government was given the power to levy taxes
confederation government problems2
Confederation Government Problems

3. No Single National Currency

  • The Confederation could not resolve conflicts between states over interstate trade, currency, or boundaries nor was there a judicial branch to resolve conflicts


  • The new national government was given the exclusive power to control interstate trade and the currency
  • A judicial branch of government was established with the right to resolve disputes between states
confederation government problems3
Confederation Government Problems

4. No Executive Leadership

  • States attempted to negotiate with foreign powers independently
  • The Confederation government had a lack of power and was unable to solve the nation’s problems
    • The states had more power and refused to acknowledge the federal government


  • The federal government was given the exclusive right to make treaties with foreign powers
    • Gave the US diplomatic power
  • Set up a federal system which shared power between the states and the national government
confederation government problems4
Confederation Government Problems

5. Required unanimous vote to amend

  • Complete inability to correct the Confederation government’s failures


  • Made it easier to fix any unforeseen problems by including a provision for amendment by ¾ of the states
confederation government problems5
Confederation Government Problems

6. Each state had equal vote in Congress

  • The Confederation Congress consisted of one house and each state delegation had one vote, no matter how big or small the population
    • Georgia (23,375) v. MA (235,308)

Conflicts in Philadelphia:

  • Virginia Plan- large states wanted representation based on population
  • New Jersey Plan- small states wanted to have equal representation
  • Slaves- southern states wanted to count slaves in the population, northern states did not


  • The Connecticut “Great” Compromise- A bicameral legislature was created that included the House of Representatives (population) and the Senate (equal)
  • 3/5ths Compromise- slaves were to count as 3/5 of a person for the purposes of representation and taxation
limiting popular power
Limiting Popular Power
  • Due to the belief in “We, the people” and “no taxation without representation”, the Constitution gave the House of Representatives the power to create taxes because they were directly elected by voters
  • The Framers were fearful of too much popular influence on the government
    • They created a system for indirect election of Senators
    • Supreme Court justices had to be nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate
    • The electoral college was created as a buffer between the people and the election of the president
ratification of the constitution
Ratification of the Constitution
  • Federalists- supported the Constitution and wanted a strong national government
    • James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay wrote The Federalist Papers, which were a series of essays that provided an understanding of the intentions of the Framers of the Constitution
  • Anti-Federalists- opponents of the Constitution and wanted stronger state governments
    • Called for a bill of rights to protect the common person from the elitist who would control the government
1 5 7 slides
1.5 7 slides
  • The Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Limited Government
    • Democracy
    • Republicanism
    • Federalism
    • Separation of Powers
    • Checks and Balances
    • Individual Rights
limited government
Limited Government
  • Limited government is based on the idea that the government must be controlled so that it cannot infringe upon the rights of the people
    • The Constitution effectively limited the power of the national government
  • The fundamental principle of democracy is that the government derives its power from the consent of the governed
    • Under the Articles of Confederation, sovereignty belonged to the states
    • Under the Constitution, the authority to govern comes from the people
      • “We the People…do ordain and establish this Constitution”
  • The US was not a true democracy from the start due to its failure to recognize the right to vote of several classes of people
    • The small percentage of voters controlled the government
  • Republicanism is a form of government where voters are represented by elected legislators
  • The legislators make decisions in the interests of the voters
  • Initially, only the House members were from a direct election (now Senators are too)
  • Federalism is designed to limit the powers of the government by only delegating it some powers
    • Exclusive Powers
      • Raising an army, Post offices, Foreign diplomacy, Printing and coining money
  • Other powers are reserved for the states
    • Reserved Powers
      • Traffic laws, Public schools, Conducting elections, Marriage laws
  • Some powers are shared by the states and the national government
    • Concurrent Powers
      • Creating courts, Taxes, Borrowing money
separation of powers
Separation of Powers
  • The Constitution divided the federal government into three branches
    • Executive
      • President
    • Legislative
      • Bicameral Congress
        • The House of Representatives
        • The Senate
    • Judicial
      • Supreme Court and Federal courts
checks and balances
Checks and Balances
  • Checks and balances ensure the power of each branch is limited due to competing powers in other branches
    • Congress passes laws but the president can veto them
    • Congress can override a veto with a supermajority vote
    • The president has the power to make treaties but the Senate must ratify them
    • The president and judges can be impeached but it must pass both houses of Congress
individual rights
Individual Rights
  • The addition of a Bill of Rights to the Constitution limited the national government from infringing on the rights of the people
    • Freedom of speech, religion, assembly, and press
    • Protections against unfair trials and unreasonable search and seizure
    • Right to bear arms
1 6 10 slides
1.6 10 slides
  • Development of the two-party system
  • Controversies over domestic and foreign policies
  • Regional interests of the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists
the two party system
The Two-Party System
  • The two-party system developed as a result of political differences between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson during George Washington’s first term
    • Both men agreed about the ratification of the Constitution and both supported Washington
    • They differed regarding Hamilton’s (then Secretary of Treasury) economic plan
  • Hamilton became a Federalist
  • Jefferson became a Democratic-Republican
hamilton v jefferson
Hamilton v. Jefferson
  • Hamilton proposed that the government pay off the debt left from the Revolution by issuing new bonds (individual investments in the government)
  • Jefferson (then Secretary of State) opposed this because he believed it would give wealthy investors more power in the federal government
  • Congressed approved the plan
hamilton v jefferson1
Hamilton v. Jefferson
  • Hamilton proposed that the national government assume the debts of the states
    • Northern states supported this because they had outstanding debts
    • Southern states (except SC) opposed this because they had already paid off their debts
  • Northern and Southern Congressmen compromised by agreeing to assume the debt, but also moving the US capital to a southern state
    • The District of Columbia was carved out of Maryland and Virginia
hamilton v jefferson2
Hamilton v. Jefferson
  • Hamilton proposed that Congress establish a national bank
    • The bank would hold the nation’s revenue and supply loans for economic growth
  • Jefferson objected based on the exclusive powers given to the federal government in the Constitution
    • The Constitution did not specifically list that Congress had the power to establish a bank
  • Hamilton argued that the bank was “necessary and proper” to establish a national currency and regulate trade
    • This ‘elastic clause’ was included in the Constitution to allow it change with the needs of the nation
  • Congress and Washington approved the establishment of the First Bank of the US
hamilton v jefferson3
Hamilton v. Jefferson
  • Hamilton proposed Congress establish a protective tariff
    • The protective tariff would set a high tax on imported goods to encourage Americans to buy goods made in the US
    • This would protect America’s emerging industries
  • Jefferson believed that democracy was dependent on farmers and did not want to promote industry
    • Southern planters feared European nations would buy less crops from the US because Americans were buying few foreign made goods
  • Congress did not pass the protective tariff
hamilton v jefferson4
Hamilton v. Jefferson
  • Hamilton proposed an excise tax on whiskey
    • Excise tax- tax on the production of a product; sellers would make up the money by increasing the cost of the product
    • He wanted to control the drinking habits of Americans and raise revenue for the federal government
  • Jefferson opposed the excise tax because western farmers turned their grain into whiskey to transport it more easily across the Appalachian Mountains
  • The “Whiskey Tax” led to the Whiskey Rebellion of western Pennsylvania farmers
    • This was the first challenge to the authority of the new national government
    • The Rebellion quickly ended when troops led by President Washington marched into the state
  • The Rebellion showed the seriousness of the split between the two political groups
federalists v democratic republicans
Federalists v. Democratic-Republicans
  • The two-party system developed as a result of varying political positions on economic issues
  • Federalists
    • Supporters of Hamilton
    • Strong central government
    • Loose interpretation of the Constitution
    • Wealthy merchants and emerging industrialists (North)
    • Few southern elites
  • Democratic-Republicans
    • Supporters of Jefferson
    • Limited central government
    • Strict interpretation of the Constitution
    • ‘the common man’, rural northerners, southerners, backcountry folk
conflict over france
Conflict over France
  • Jefferson supported the French Revolution because France’s Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen was similar to the Declaration of Independence
  • Hamilton supported the British because of long tradition and trade relations
    • The British were facing attack from French forces during the French Revolution
conflict over france1
Conflict over France
  • The disagreement over France was heightened
    • The Citizen Genet incident- Genet was a French ambassador urging Americans to support France. He was required to stop by the US government because it showed favoritism over Britain
    • Jay’s Treaty- Removed British troops from frontier forts on US soil but allowed British traders to trade fur on the US side of the US-Canadian border
    • XYZ Affair- French officials demanded a bribe from US diplomats
limiting freedoms
Limiting Freedoms
  • Issues over foreign diplomacy led to the creation of the Alien and Sedition Acts
    • The Alien and Sedition Acts were designed to silence the outspoken and slanderous opposition of the federal government
  • Jefferson and Madison wrote the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions opposing the Acts
    • The Resolutions declared that state legislatures could nullify an act of Congress
  • The controversy contributed to Jefferson’s election in 1800
1 7 4 slides
1.7 4 slides
  • Expansion of the power of the national government
  • Influential Supreme Court decisions under Chief Justice John Marshall
the supreme court
The Supreme Court
  • American’s ideas about democracy have been shaped by the Supreme Court
  • Chief Justice John Marshall strengthened the principles of the Constitution and the power of the national government through the decisions made under his leadership
the supreme court1
The Supreme Court
  • The Judiciary Act of 1789 established the court system because the Constitution did not set guidelines
  • The first chief justices presided over a very weak court
  • President John Adams appointed Federalist John Marshall because of their similar political beliefs
  • Marshall is credited for strengthening the power and role of the court system in the US
the marshall court
The Marshall Court
  • Marbury v. Madison (1803) began the precedent of judicial review as a vital part of the checks and balances system
    • Federalist President Adams lost to Democratic-Republican Jefferson
    • Adams appointed Federalists to open judicial spots before he left office (‘midnight’ judges)
    • Democratic-Republican Secretary of State James Madison refused to approve William Marbury’s commission
    • Marbury appealed to the Supreme Court
    • Chief Justice Marshall reviewed the appeal and ruled that the Supreme Court did not have the power to force Madison to approve the commission
  • This was the first case that the Court claimed the right to determine the constitutionality of a law or action
the marshall court1
The Marshall Court
  • The Marshall Court continued to strengthen the role of the federal government
    • Gibbons v. Ogden
      • The Court ruled that only the federal government could control interstate commerce
    • Dartmouth v. Woodward
      • The Court upheld the sanctity of contracts against state government
    • McCullough v. Maryland
      • The Court ruled that the sate of Maryland could not inhibit the operations of the Bank of the US by imposing a tax
    • Worcester v. Georgia
      • The Court denied the right of the state of Georgia to limit the rights of the individual in a case related to Indian reservations
january 23

January 23

Standard 1 Test