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Sea-ice hazards, associated risks and implications for human activities in the Arctic . H. Eicken, A. R. Mahoney, J. Jones, M. L. Druckenmiller * Geophysical Institute & International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA

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sea ice hazards associated risks and implications for human activities in the arctic
Sea-ice hazards, associated risks and implications for human activities in the Arctic

H. Eicken, A. R. Mahoney, J. Jones, M. L. Druckenmiller*

Geophysical Institute & International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks

Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA

e-mail: hajo.eicken@gi.alaska.edu

*Now at: USAID, Washington, D.C.

• Website with more information:

seaice.alaska.edu/gi

• Key publication:see press brief materials at EGU web site

C. Nayokpuk, Shishmaref, Nov 2013

sea ice system services ice use
Sea-ice system services & ice use
  • Broad definition of ice hazards based on disruption of ice services & threats to system integrity
  • Slow onset
    • Climate regulation
    • Coastal protection
    • Geologic agent
    • Subsistence activities
  • Rapid onset
    • Marine & coastal hazard
    • Transportation corridor
    • Platform

C. Nayokpuk, Shishmaref

Masterson

large reductions in summer ice concentration 1979 2013
Large reductions in summer ice concentration (1979-2013)

NSIDC.org

  • Summer ice less extensive
  • Seas north of Alaska & Eastern Siberia have seen greatest change anywhere in Arctic

September

slide4

Coastal Protection

  • Sea ice protects coasts from waves & thermal subrosion of permafrost
  • Alaska open water season extended by >1 wk/decade
  • Increasing vulnerability of coast to fall storms

Coastal Erosion

  • Sea ice highly effective sediment transport agent
  • Ice export may balance input from erosion (?)
  • More mobile ice & larger fetch increase entrainment & export

USGS

Eicken et al., GRL, 2000

risk exposure
Risk: Exposure
  • Coastal & offshore infrastructure
  • Shipping routes
  • Fisheries
  • Local & indigenous use: subsistence & transport
  • Potential overlap of uses & hazards

seaice.alaska.edu/gi

slide7

Assessing the state

of landfastice

2008 Barrow Ice Trails

Jacob Adams Crew Trail, 2008

Photo: Craig George

Druckenmilleret al., 2010

key points
Key points
  • Evaluations of hazards in an ice use context to capture impacts of sea-ice change on human activities and loss of services provided by ice cover
  • Rapid change requires improved tracking & prediction of hazards
  • Key ice parameters  Hazards Index
  • Preliminary hazards survey: Hazards & maritime activities in close proximity in many areas
  • Observing programs for hazards assessments require sufficient spatial resolution & sampling of extreme features

seaice.alaska.edu/gi