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European Pears. Forelle. Bartlett. Starkrimson. Bosc. d’Anjou. Comice. European Pears are Harvested Unripe, but Mature. Harvest by hand into large soft-sided picking bags. Empty into field bins. Dumping fruit from field bin to packingline Combination wet/dry dump Dry dump.

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slide1

European Pears

Forelle

Bartlett

Starkrimson

Bosc

d’Anjou

Comice

slide3

Harvest by hand

into large soft-sided

picking bags.

Empty into field bins.

slide4

Dumping fruit from

  • field bin to packingline
  • Combination wet/dry
  • dump
  • Dry dump
slide5

Immersion dump

  • from field bin to
  • packingline
  • bin pulled under
  • water and fruit float out
  • need floatation salts
  • gentle
slide6

Sorting Pears into Two Grades

Center Lane for Canning and Juice

slide8

Place Pack Operation

Each fruit wrapped in tissue and

placed in box in a pattern

slide11

Tray-Pack Box

Can Also Display in Box

factors affecting pear quality
Factors Affecting Pear Quality
  • Harvest maturity
  • Delays before cold storage
  • Speed of cooling
  • Storage temperature
  • Relative humidity in storage
  • Length of storage
  • Storage atmosphere - O2, CO2, ethylene
slide19

Effect of Delays in Cold Storage

on Pear Quality

Cold Storage at 1°C (33 °F)

1

2

0

4

3

5

DAYS DELAY

slide20

Effect of Storage Temperature

on Pear Quality

Lake County 8/23

10 weeks Storage

-1

-0.5

0.5

1

2°C

slide21

Effects of Temperature and Ethylene

on Bartlett Pears

Harvested 8/2/2001

Stored 3 months

2°C (36 F)

-1°C (30 F)

0 ppm

0 ppm

1 ppm

1 ppm

slide22

Storage Scald

  • Methods of Control
  • Ethoxyquin
  • CA Storage
slide24

Benefits of CA Storage

  • Delays fruit ripening and senescence
    • softening
    • yellowing
    • scald development
  • Extends storage life
slide25

Benefits of

Controlled Atmosphere Storage

6 months in Air

6 months in 2% O2

slide27

Bartlett Pears

Harvested and Immediately Ripened

8d air 20°C (68°F)

1d C2H4

7d air 20°C (68°F)

why do pears need conditioning
Why do Pears Need Conditioning?
  • Pears have insufficient capacity to produce ethylene at harvest
    • lack of precursor, ACC
  • ACC accumulates during cold storage
  • Ethylene treatment stimulates production of ACC and ethylene
ethylene production during ripening
Ethylene Production during Ripening
  • More uniform softening
  • Enhanced production of flavor and aroma volatiles
  • Improved texture of fruit
    • buttery, not gritty
    • juicy
slide31

Conditioning Pears for Ripening

Comice Bartlett Bosc Anjou

Cold Storage @ 30-32°F 4 2-3 2 8wks

Cold Storage @ 40-50°F 2-3 1 1 3-6 wks

100ppm Ethylene @ 68°F 3 1-2 1 3 days

100ppm Ethylene @ 45-50º ? 2-3 ? ? days

Cold storage requirements may be longer when fruit

are stored in CA

slide34
Maximize

Storage life

Blush

Sensory quality

Crispness

Flavor

Sweetness

Size

Minimize

Softening and mealiness

Disorders

Bitter pit

Scald

Internal browning

Checking

Goal
indicators of harvest maturity
Indicators of Harvest Maturity
  • # Days from full bloom
  • Time/temp (heat units) from anthesis
  • Days from harvest to onset of ethylene production
  • Ground color
  • Soluble solids content
  • Flesh firmness and SSC
  • Starch disappearance pattern
  • Internal ethylene concentration
  • Changes in firmness or starch content
slide36

Starch Content is a

Common Indicator of Harvest Maturity

slide37

Hand Harvest into Small Padded Picking Bags

Highly Susceptible to Bruising

slide38

Carefully transfer

to field bin!!

Avoid bruising!

slide41

Drenching bins of

apples prior to

storage

  • Diphenylamine
  • -antioxidant to control
  • scald
  • Fungicide
  • Calcium to control
  • bitter pit
slide42

Immersion of bins

  • Apples naturally float
  • Very gentle!!
slide47

Hand Sorting Remains Necessary

Even with Electronic Sorting

controlled atmosphere storage
Controlled Atmosphere Storage
  • Store 1.5 to 12+ months
  • 0.7 to 3% oxygen
  • 0.5 to 4% carbon dioxide
  • Maintains firmness, ground color and acidity by reducing respiration and the effects of ethylene
  • Reduces storage scald and bitter pit
  • May induce disorders such as internal browning
slide53

Effect of Carbon Dioxide Concentration

on Internal Browning

Fuji Apples

Harvest 10/17/92

4 months @ 0.5ºC

1.5% CO2

2% O2

0.4% CO2

2% O2

3% CO2

2% O2

Air

slide54

Penicillium expansum on Apple

  • Wound pathogen
  • Controlled by Low-Temperature Storage
slide55

Botrytis Rot on Apple

Side, stem or blossom infections

Growth is reduced at 0°C (32°F)

slide56

Storage Scald on Granny Smith Apples

  • Oxidative damage to upper cell layers
  • Cultivars vary in susceptibility
  • Hot and dry climates increase susceptibility
  • Diphenylamine used for control
  • SmartFresh (1-MCP) also reduces scald
slide57

Large fruit

  • Develops on the tree or
  • during first 4 - 6 weeks
  • of storage
  • Low calcium/high N2
  • High vigor trees
  • Young trees
slide58

An accumulation of sorbitol

in the intercellular spaces

mealiness
Mealiness
  • Soft texture causing a dry feeling in the mouth during chewing
    • Low adhesion between cells
    • Retain strong cell walls
  • Cells pull apart instead of breaking when you bite – no juicy sensation
  • Cultivars vary in their susceptibility
  • Develops after extended cold storage
use of smartfresh on apples 1 methylcyclopropane
Use of SmartFresh on Apples1-methylcyclopropane
  • Applied at harvest in storage room
  • Prevents/reduces the action of ethylene on the apples
  • Use alone or together with CA
  • Maintains firmness and titratable acidity
  • No effect on starch conversion to sugars
  • Reduces storage scald and mealiness
slide61

Initial

Fruit Quality

Determines the

Ripened Quality!!