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Unit 4: B rain, Behaviour & E xperience. THROUGHOUT OUR LIVES WE CONTINUE TO LEARN – ALL THE ACTIONS WE TAKE, ALL THE FEELINGS WE HAVE AND ALL THE THOUGHTS WE PROCESS CONTRIBUTE TO THE TOTALITY OF WHO WE ARE AND WHAT WE ARE CAPABLE OF DOING.

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unit 4 b rain behaviour e xperience

Unit 4: Brain, Behaviour& Experience

THROUGHOUT OUR LIVES WE CONTINUE TO LEARN – ALL THE ACTIONS WE TAKE, ALL THE FEELINGS WE HAVE AND ALL THE THOUGHTS WE PROCESS CONTRIBUTE TO THE TOTALITY OF WHO WE ARE AND WHAT WE ARE CAPABLE OF DOING.

RECENT RESEARCH HAS SHOWN THAT THE BRAIN IS ABLE TO CONTINUE TO CHANGE AND DEVELOP THROUGHOUT OUR LIVES – CONTRADICTING THE EARLIER SCIENTIFIC BELIEF THAT SUCH CHANGES WERE POSSIBLE ONLY UNTIL EARLY ADULTHOOD.

introduction to unit 4 psych
Introduction to Unit 4 Psych
  • In this unit we examine how we learn through experience, as the biochemistry of the body and brain and the psychological processes of thought and feeling enable these ongoing changes.
  • Mental health and well-being are amongst the prime goals for society and for any individual. Major initiatives from those involved in the Mental Health industry (Psychologists, Psychiatrists, Nursesetc) aim, as a first choice, to promote mental well-being or, where this is not possible, to understand, diagnose and treat people with mental illness.
unit 4 aos 1 learning
Unit 4 - AOS 1LEARNING
  • LEARNING REFERS TO A LASTING CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR OR KNOWLEDGE THAT OCCURS AS A RESULT OF EXPERIENCE
  • The most rapid rate of learning certainly occurs at the beginning of life, but throughout our lives we learn to act, to respond, to think, to talk and to do.
  • It is an ongoing process throughout the lifespan, to adapt in an ever-changing world.

Learned Behavior:

  • Can occur intentionally or unintentionally
  • It can be active or passive
  • Learning can refer to a change in behavior that is immediate or delayed:

ie…The potentialto behave in a particular way as well as observed action that takes place – we can know skills, techniques, information, but don’t use it

outcome
>>Outcome>>
  • On completion of this unit, the student should be able to explain the neural basis of learning, and compare and contrast different theories of learning and their applications.

(VCE Study Design 2009)

k ey knowledge behaviours not dependent on learning p re programmed behaviour
Key knowledge: Behaviours not dependent on learning: Pre-programmed Behaviour
  • Behaviours not dependent on learning including reflex action, fixed action patterns and behaviours due to physical growth and development (maturation).

(VCE Study Design 2009)

Not all behaviours need to be learnt: some are inborn reflexes or complex responses to signals from the environment.

reflex actions
Reflex Actions
  • Reflex actions are automatic, involuntary responses that do not require prior experience.
  • Reflexes are adaptive for survival, meaning that we would be in danger if we did not have these built in mechanisms to help protect us from environmental hazards.
  • Newborn babies have many unlearnt reflex actions necessary for survival.
slide7

Little Cam: Example of Infant Reflexes: 4 mins

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rjnQhno3LA4&feature=related
examples you experience
Examples you experience
  • Review: Reflex actions are involuntary/automatic responses, which do not require prior experience. They occur in response to an environmental cue to deal with specific stimuli that are important for their survival.
  • Withdrawing your hand form a hot objects, blinking when smoke enters your eyes, sneezing, vomiting.
fixed action patterns
Fixed Action Patterns
  • A fixed action pattern is an inborn Predisposition to behave in a certain way when appropriately stimulated by environmental stimuli.
  • The term is used to describe behaviour that is inherited by every individual member of a species.
  • This type of behaviour is also referred to as instinctive behaviour or species specific behaviour.
  • Facial expressions in humans are thought to be a fixed action pattern.

Eg. Python: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kwskAXxbvDk

  • It is distinguished from reflex action patterns because the behaviours are not simple. Instead, they are complex behaviours that are unique to a particular species of animal.
  • Eg. The funnel web spider relies on inherited behaviour to create its species specific and unique tubular web.
working out if a behaviour is a reflex or a fixed action pattern
Working out if a behaviour is a reflex or a fixed action pattern
  • It is a fixed action pattern if the following are present:
  • All members of the species demonstrate the behaviour
  • Behaviour is similar when executed
  • When the organism reaches the right level of maturation, it will produce the behaviour without being learnt
  • The behaviour is difficult to change.
  • The behaviour is complex
behaviour dependent on maturation
Behaviour Dependent on Maturation
  • Some behaviours require the development of the body and the structures of the nervous system.

ie… While innate, the behaviour will not be expressed until the nervous system reaches the appropriate level of maturity.

  • The behaviour cannot be expressed before this time – no matter how much practice is offered.
  • For example, most children will begin walking around 10–14 months and it is impossible to make any child walk until he or she is physically ready.
  • Similarly, fledgling birds are unable to fly until their wings and flight-feathers have reached the required level of maturity.
  • In adolescent male humans, Puberty (voice change)
  • In adolescent female humans, Puberty (menarche)
next time in psych 4

Next time in Psych 4

Mechanisms of Learning