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Aad van Bohemen Head, Emergency Policy Division International Energy Agency For 38 th Meeting of the APEC Energy Working Group, Bali, Indonesia,16-20 November 2009. The IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies. The International Energy Agency. 28 member countries. Poland.

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the iea response system for oil supply emergencies

Aad van Bohemen

Head, Emergency Policy Division

International Energy Agency

For 38th Meeting of the APEC Energy Working Group,

Bali, Indonesia,16-20 November 2009

The IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies


The International Energy Agency

28 member countries







Czech Republic








New Zealand



United States



The Netherlands







United Kingdom

apec iea cooperation
APEC – IEA cooperation

Energy Security Initiative (ESI)

  • JODI
    • To promote market transparency
  • Real-time Sharing System
    • Coordination of contingency plans
  • Emergency responses; oil stocks
    • Cooperation with the IEA
    • Members report arrangements on a voluntary basis


impetus to establish the iea
Impetus to establish the IEA

1973/74 oil crisis

  • Avoid competition for limited supplies
    • “Go-it-alone”, uncoordinated policy ineffective
  • Coordinated action
    • mechanism for response
  • Safety net
    • emergency reserves ≥90 days of net oil imports
    • Demand restraint measures (7-10%)


member government responsibilities
Member Government Responsibilities
  • Legislationto ensure participation in IEA decisions with appropriate emergency measures
  • Emergency response team (NESO)
      • Co-ordinate emergency operations
      • Interface with domestic oil industry
      • Interface with IEA emergency operations
  • Data collection
      • Monthly Oil Statistics
      • Emergency questionnaire
emergency response measures
Emergency Response Measures


Supply Side





Demand Side




iea stockholding obligation
IEA Stockholding Obligation
  • Total oil reserves cover at least 90 days
    • Net-imports of previous year
    • Crude and refined product
  • The calculation
    • excludes marine bunkers and naphtha
    • deducts 10% for unavailable stocks
  • Main types of stocks excluded:
    • oil not yet produced
    • stocks held in pipelines, tankers at sea,in service stations, retail stores, military stocks



Stockholding Options

  • Industry stocks
  • Compulsory stocks and commercial stocks held by companies
  • Public stocks
    • Government stocks
    • Financed with central government budget, Held exclusively for emergency purposes
    • or
    • Agency stocks
    • Maintained for emergency purposes Held/controlled by public bodies or agencies


different stockholding structures in iea countries
Different Stockholding Structures in IEA Countries

Note: There is no stockholding obligation on industry in Australia and Canada.

Australia is a small net importer, while Canada is a net exporter.

financing mechanisms
Financing Mechanisms
  • Government/Agency Stocks

A variety of financing methods

  • Initial set-up/capital costs
  • Financed from central government budget
  • Bank loans also used
  • Running costs of stockholding agencies
  • Financed from central government budget
  • Through a fee (levy) charged on product sales
  • Through a fee charged to industry
  • Compulsory Industry Stocks
  • Relevant costs are included in consumer prices and borne directly by consumers
public stockholding choices
Public Stockholding - Choices
  • What to hold?
  • Crude vs. Product
  • How to hold it?
  • Own storage / rented
  • Co-mingled / segregated
  • How to release it?
  • Loans, tender, sales

Whatever the means for releasing public stocks, the process should be clear for all and regularly tested


Increase in total stocks

From 3.1 billion bbls in 80s to 4.3

Increase in publicly held stocks

From 0.8 billion bbls in 80s to almost 1.6

Stockholding in IEA Countriesmid-1980s to present




public stocks a clear safety net
Public Stocks: A Clear Safety Net

1.56 billion barrels of Public stocks

2 Sep. 2005 decision, 2 mb/d

Theoretical decision, 4 mb/d

IEA Public Stocks alone could replace an oil supply disruption of 4 mb/d for 1 year



New Emergency Response System

  • 2002- Initial Contingency Response Plan (ICRP)
  • Standing procedure for
      • Prompt, first reaction for 30 days
        • Provides time to consider follow-up action
      • Broad consultation
      • Unanimous decision
  • Executive Director can take initiative
      • GB members decide
      • No meeting required
  • Attributes country shares of total response, based on normal oil consumption


iea emergency oil stock policy
IEA Emergency Oil Stock Policy

The emergency oil stocks

  • are not for price management
    • ineffective over time
    • masks important price signals
  • are for short-term oil supply disruptions
    • when market mechanisms break down temporarily
    • provide liquidity for markets to recover

Strategic oil stocks cannot effectively replace market mechanisms, only mitigate short-term supply disruptions


every disruption is different making the assessment
Every disruption is different: Making the assessment
  • What is the full extent of the outage?
    • Will global supply be affected?
    • How long will supply be off line?
    • Are crude, products or both affected?
    • Will there be a direct impact on consumption?
  • Will spare capacity act as an offset?
    • OPEC dialogue very important
    • Does crude quality match lost supplies?
  • What will be the market impact of intervention?
  • Is a regional response necessary?
    • Global market - outages rarely affect only one region
similar disruptions can call for different responses
Similar disruptions can call for different responses
  • Despite similar volume loss, 2008 was not just 2005 all over again
  • In 2008, falling demand, higher stocks, higher spare OPEC capacity, plenty idle refining capacity elsewhere & prices going down
  • So decision taken, with US colleagues, not to make coordinated release
  • But market monitoring & impact assessment just as intense as in 2005
  • Good data, analysis & communications are an ongoing necessity, not just during crises
strengthening emergency response systems
Strengthening Emergency Response Systems
  • Emergency Response Reviews (ERR)
  • Country peer reviews on emergency preparedness
  • Checks procedures and institutional arrangements
  • Contributes to identify and improve the weak points of response system
  • Emergency Response Exercises (ERE)
  • Test the processes for: decision making, communicating, hypothetical release


new approach forward for ere
New Approach forward for ERE
  • Biannual exercises continued (ERE5 in Paris scheduled in Nov.2010)
  • Specific workshops for new or complex issues/policy
  • Rollout of ERE to key NMCs
thailand iea joint ere 18 19 may 2009 in bangkok
Thailand-IEA Joint ERE (18-19 May, 2009 in Bangkok)
  • First time outside Paris, &

with a non-member country

  • Training Session (120 people)

Simulation Exercise (60 people)

  • Structure
  • CNN-style videos
  • Facilitator, game books
  • Exercise was well tailor-made

for Thailand

  • Many lessons learnt to help

Thailand enhance its energy


outreach is one of iea core activities recent activities with asean in energy security
Outreach is one of IEA core activities: Recent activities with ASEAN in energy security

Sep.2007: IEA/MoEN Workshop

for ASEAN on “Oil

Security and

National Emergency

Preparedness” (BKK)

Feb. 2008: IEA-ASEAN Training

Course on Oil Emergency

Preparedness and

Statistics (Paris)

June 2008: ERE4 (Paris)

  • All 10 ASEAN countries,

ACE, ASCOPE participated

iea publications
IEA Publications
  • “Oil Supply Security 2007”; chapters on ASEAN, China and India
  • Translation of Brochure on “IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies” into Chinese, Indonesian, Russian, Spanish & Thai
  • “ Energy Policy Review of Indonesia ”
  • “ World Energy Outlook 2007 ”; China & India
  • “ World Energy Outlook 2009 ”; Southeast Asia
outreach to apec will take off
Outreach to APEC will take off

Communiqué of IEA Ministerial Meeting (Oct.14-15, 2009)

  • IEA Member Countries Ministers asked IEA to
  • to expand the training and workshops it offers to partner countries in order to bolster their capacity to formulate sound energy policy.
  • Enhanced coordination with regional bodies, such as APEC and the African Union would be fruitful.
the energy training and capacity building programme
The Energy Training and Capacity-Building Programme
  • 2 year pilot programme, 2010-2011
  • Flexible & Tailor-made Activities
  • Seminars, workshops, training sessions of several days to a week
  • To be held at Paris HQ or in host countries
  • Secondments & internships
  • Topics to be covered
  • Energy policy development
  • Emergency response capability
  • Energy statistics, etc.
concluding remarks
Concluding Remarks:

Cooperation to be explored:



Information sharing during disruptions

Emergency contact points

Emergency Response Exercises

Emergency Response Reviews

Coordination of use of measures during global disruptions



Thank you

Contact details:

Web site: