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CENTRAL INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS PowerPoint Presentation
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CENTRAL INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS

CENTRAL INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS

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CENTRAL INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS

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  1. CENTRAL INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS D. C. MIKULECKY PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY AND FACULTY MENTORING PROGRAM

  2. BODY RHYTHMS AND THE HYPOTHALAMUS • CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS AND BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS • SLEEP

  3. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS AND BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS • OVER 100 BODY FUNCTIONS VARY ON A 24-HOUR SCHEDULE • THYROXIN SECRETION CONTROLLED BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS • ALSO ACTH AND CORTISONE • MASTER CLOCK: SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS

  4. MANIFESTATIONS OF DAILY RHYTHMS • BODY TEMPERATURE VARIATION • DISRUPTION CAUSES PROBLEMS: JET LAG

  5. SLEEP • SLEEP HAS DIFFERENT STAGES • NEURAL MECHANISMS OF SLEEP • SLEEP DISORDERS

  6. SLEEP HAS DIFFERENT STAGES • 3 TO 5 CYCLES PER NIGHT CONSISTING OF 5 STAGES (I - V AND REM) • SLEEP STAGES BASED ON EEG ACTIVITY • RAPID EYE MOVEMENT (REM) SLEEP • SLEEP PATTERNS VARY WITH AGE

  7. 3 TO 5 CYCLES PER NIGHT CONSISTING OF 5 STAGES (I - V AND REM) • FREQUENCY OF ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY DECREASES AS AMPLITUDE INCREASES • BY STAGE 4 HEART RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE HAVE DECREASED WHILE GI MOTILITY INCREASES (PARASYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY) • REM SLEEP TAKES THE BRAIN FROM STAGE 4 BACK TO STAGE 1 (SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY) • REM SLEEP IS ASSOCIATED WITH VISUAL DREAMING

  8. SLEEP PATTERNS VARY WITH AGE • WITH AGE TOTAL SLEEP TIME DECREASES • ALSO THE % REM SLEEP • ALSO THE TIME SPENT IN STAGE 4

  9. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF SLEEP • THE HYPOTHALAMUS AND BRAIN STEM ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR SLEEP/AWAKE CYCLES • THE PREOPTIC AREA OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS INDUCES NON-REM SLEEP • SEROTONON WILL ALSO INDUCE SLEEP WHEN INJECTED INTO THIS AREA • RAPHE NUCLEUS MAY BE THE GENERATOR OF REM SLEEP

  10. SLEEP DISORDERS • INSOMNIA: INABILITY TO SLEEP, MAY BE CAUSED BY DISRUPTION OF CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. • NARCOLEPSY: ATTACKS OF SLEEP AT ANY TIME, MAY BE DUE TO RAPHE NUCLEUS REM-SLEEP GENERATOR. AN INHERITED DISORDER. TREATED WITH AMPHETAMINES

  11. MOTIVATIONAL SYSTEMS • HUNGER • THIRST • SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

  12. HUNGER GLUCOSE RECEPTORS IN HYPOTHALAMUS REDUCED AVAILABILITY OF GLUCOSE SHORT TERM MECHANO- RECEPTORS IN STOMACH CONTRACTIONS OF EMPTY STOMACH HUNGER LACK OF FOOD LOW TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS IN FAT CELLS LONG TERM PANCREAS

  13. THIRST OSMORECEPTORS IN SUPRAOPTIC AND SUPRA- VENTRICULAR NUCLEI OF HYPOTHALAMUS THIRST WATER DEFICIENCY WATER RETENTION BY KIDNEY ADH SERETION BY PITUITARY

  14. SEXUAL BEHAVIOR • ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMUS ORGANIZES RESPONSES TO PHERMONES • OLIFACTORY CUES SENT TO PYRIFORM CORTEX AND AMYGDALA AND INDIRECTLY TO HYPOTHALAMUS • ANDROGENS DETERMINE RELEASE OF LEUTINIZING HORMONE- CONSTANT OR CYCLIC

  15. LEARNING AND MEMORY • ASSOSCIATIVE VS NONASSOCIATIVE LEARNING • SHORT AND LONG TERM MEMORY • NEURONAL PATHWAYS • SPLIT BRAIN STUDIES • CELLULAR MANIFESTATIONS • USE AND DISUSE

  16. ASSOSCIATIVE VS NONASSOCIATIVE LEARNING • HABITUATION AND SENSITIZATION ARE NONASSOCIATIVE • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IS ASSOCIATIVE • OPERANT CONDITIONING IS ASSOCIATIVE

  17. CONDITIONED REFLEX RESPONSE: CLOSE EYE RED NUCLEUS STIMULUS: AIR PUFF ON EYE CEREBELLUM PURKINJE CELL OLIVARY NUCLEUS CLIMBING FIBER

  18. CONDITIONED REFLEX CONDITIONING STIMULUS: TONE RESPONSE: CLOSE EYE RED NUCLEUS COCHLEAR NUCLEUS STIMULUS: AIR PUFF ON EYE CEREBELLUM PURKINJE CELL OLIVARY NUCLEUS PONTINE NUCLEUS MOSSY FIBERS CLIMBING FIBER

  19. CONDITIONED REFLEX CONDITIONING STIMULUS: TONE RESPONSE: CLOSE EYE RED NUCLEUS COCHLEAR NUCLEUS CEREBELLUM PURKINJE CELL PONTINE NUCLEUS MOSSY FIBERS

  20. SHORT AND LONG TERM MEMORY • SHORT-TERM MEMORY INVOLVES IMMEDIATE USE, IS EASILY DISRUPTED AND AND IS SHORT LIVED • LONG-TERM MEMORY IS MORE STABLE • INFORMATION IS PASSED FROM SHORT- TERM TO LONG-TERM MEMORY BY A PROCESS CALLED CONSOLIDATION

  21. NEURONAL PATHWAYS • MEMORY CIRCUITS PROVIDE A SIMPLE EXPLANAION FOR MEMORY • THESE INVOLVE THE HYPOTHALAMUS AND AMYGDALA AS WELL AS THE TEMPORAL LOBE AND THE HIPPOCAMPUS

  22. SPLIT BRAIN STUDIES • INFORMATION IS PROCESSED AND STORED DIFFERENTLY IN DIFFERENT SPECIES • MONKEYS NEED BOTH HEMESPHERES WHILE CATS CAN LEARN IN ONE HEMISPHERE AND TRANSFER THE INFORMATION TO THE OTHER

  23. CELLULAR MANIFESTATIONS • HABITUATION IS A DECREASE IN SYNAPTIC TRAQNSMISSION IN RESPONSE TO A REPEATED STIMULUS • SENSITIZATION INVOLVES AN INCREASE IN TRANSMITTER RELEASE • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IS A SENSITIZATION PROCESS

  24. USE AND DISUSE • IN EXERCISE MUSCLES INCREASE MASS WITH USE • NEURAL PATHWAYS CAN STRENGTHEN OR WEAKEN CONNECTIONS BETWEEN NERVE CELLS • THE OPPOSITE ALSO HAPPENS: ATROPHY WITH DISUSE

  25. LANGUAGE SYSTEMS • DOMINANT AND NONDOMINANT HEMISPHERES • ANATOMICAL CORRELATES OF SPEECH DISORDERS

  26. LOCALIZATION OF LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATION COMPREHENSION MOTOR PROGRAMS

  27. DOMINANT AND NONDOMINANT HEMISPHERES • TYPICALLY, SPEECH AREA IN DOMINANT HEMISPHERE IS LARGER • THIS DIFFERENCE APPEARS IN THE HUMAN FETUS BY THE 31ST WEEK OF GESTATION • NONDOMINANT HEMISPHERE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR INTONATION AND EMOTIONAL ASPECTS

  28. ANATOMICAL CORRELATES OF SPEECH DISORDERS • NONDOMINANT CORRELATE OF WERNICKE’S AND BROCA’S AREAS: APROSODIAS-INABILITY TO UNDERSTAND OR EXPRESS INTONATION • APHASIAS: LANGUAGE DISORDER DUE TO BRAIN DAMAGE • DYSLEXIA: CONGENITAL DISORDER AFFECTING READING

  29. APHASIAS • BROCA’S: DISRUPTION OF MOTOR CENTERS-AFFECTS BOTH SPEECH AND WRITING • WERNICKE’S AREA: LOSS OF COMPREHENSION

  30. LATERALITY OF BRAIN FUNCTION • RIGHT AND LEFT BRAIN • GENDER DIFFERENCES

  31. RIGHT AND LEFT BRAIN • RIGHT HEMISPHERE: SPATIAL ABILITIES, ARTISTIC AND MUSICAL ABILITY • LEFT HEMISPHERE: ANALYTICAL SKILLS

  32. GENDER DIFFERENCES • MALES TEND TO EXHIBIT MORE LATERALIZATION OF SPECIFIC TASKS • FEMALES USE BOTH HEMISPHERES MORE SYMMETRICALLY