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Normal Rain (pH 5.6). CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l)  H 2 CO 3 (aq). carbonic acid (a weak acid). Acid Rain (pH < 5.6). NO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l)  HNO 3 (aq). nitric acid (a strong acid). Transportation 60%. 2 SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g)  2 SO 3 (g). SO 3 (g) + H 2 O (l)  H 2 SO 4 (aq).

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Normal rain ph 5 6

Normal Rain (pH 5.6)

CO2 (g) + H2O (l) H2CO3(aq)

carbonic acid

(a weak acid)


Normal rain ph 5 6

Acid Rain (pH < 5.6)

NO2(g) + H2O (l) HNO3(aq)

nitric acid

(a strong acid)

Transportation

60%


Normal rain ph 5 6

2 SO2(g) + O2(g) 2 SO3(g)

SO3(g) + H2O (l) H2SO4(aq)

sulfuric acid

(a strong acid)

Electric Utilities

27%

Industrial Sources

68%


Normal rain ph 5 6

Effects of Acid Rain

1.Damage to Structures Made of Limestone, CaCO3


Normal rain ph 5 6

2. Damage to Plants

Acid rain damages the

surfaces of leafs. This

leaves the plant unable

to make food & more

susceptible to pests &

diseases.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Acid rain also causesleaching(removal) of minerals from the soil.

Aluminum can block

the uptake of the few

remaining minerals in

the soil.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Acid rain can kill

thedecomposers

in soil.


Normal rain ph 5 6

3.Damage to Fish Populations

Fish (especially their eggs &

fry) are very sensitive to changes

in pH. Acid rain can cause

pH shockas the snow & ice

melts in the spring.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Acid rain can cause the aluminum in soil to enter ponds & lakes. Fish respond to the aluminum by producing excess mucous on the surface of their gills. The result is death by suffocation.


Normal rain ph 5 6

4. lakes. Fish respond to the aluminum by producing excess mucous on the surface of their gills. The result is death by suffocation.Harm to Human Beings

We depend upon the forestry, fishing,

& agricultural sectorsnot only for

food, paper, & building materials,

but also for jobs & recreation.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Nitrogen & sulfur oxides lakes. Fish respond to the aluminum by producing excess mucous on the surface of their gills. The result is death by suffocation.

can react with the moisture

in our lungs to produce acids.


Normal rain ph 5 6

As a result of acid rain, lakes. Fish respond to the aluminum by producing excess mucous on the surface of their gills. The result is death by suffocation.

toxic minerals (e.g.- Hg)

can be leached out of soil

and into our drinking water.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Why Are Certain Areas More Sensitive to Acid Rain Than Others?

bedrock consists of granite,

which is NOT a base

bedrock consists of a base - limestone or CaCO3

(i.e.- a vast inland sea was once located in this area)


Normal rain ph 5 6

The Great Lakes Others?

Lakes in the Canadian Shield


Normal rain ph 5 6

The prevailing winds carry acid rain emissions from Others?

their sources in southern Ontario & the American industrial

heartland to these areas.


Normal rain ph 5 6

How Can Acid Rain Be Prevented or Remedied? Others?

Catalytic convertersdecompose nitrogen

& sulfur oxides.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Scrubbers Others?

These devices spray a solution containing limestone powder into the smokestack. This causes the sulfur dioxide to become neutralized.


Normal rain ph 5 6

“Soft” (Bituminous) Coal Others?

This is coal that has

a low sulfur content.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Liming Others?

The process of adding a lime or calcium hydroxide (a base)

to acidified lakes.



Normal rain ph 5 6

Legislation Oxides

Canadian PM Brian Mulrooney & U.S. President George Bush

signed the Acid Rain Accord in 1991, committing both of their

countries to reduce acid rain emissions.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Lifestyle Decisions Oxides

drive less

conserve electricity