Download
soil science simplified ppt 1 intro n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Soil Science Simplified Ppt 1 - Intro PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Soil Science Simplified Ppt 1 - Intro

Soil Science Simplified Ppt 1 - Intro

166 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Soil Science Simplified Ppt 1 - Intro

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. MENGAPA KITA MEMPELAJARI TANAH ? Soil Science SimplifiedPpt 1 - Intro FOTO: smno.kampus.ub.janu2013

  2. Mengapakitamempelajari TANAH ? TANAH sangatpenting: • Media untukproduksitanaman • Pembersih air danlimbah • Produsendanpenyerap gas-gas • Rumahbagiberbagaiorganisme • Medium untukpertumbuhantanaman • Dekomposerlimbah • Sumberbahanuntukkonstruksi , senidanobat-obatan, dll. • Dokumensejarahmanusia, geologis, klimatis, danbiologis • Sumberdayaalamesensial. • Tempatmendirikanbangunan, danlainnya.

  3. HUBUNGAN TANAH DAN TANAMAN Soil-Plant Nutrient Cycle. Figure illustrates the uptake of nutrients by plants in the forest" soil ecosystem. Source: U.S. Geological Survey. Diunduhdari: ……….. http://cnx.org/content/m41620/latest/

  4. HUBUNGAN TANAH DAN TANAMAN Plants as primary producers require mineral elements which they remove from the soil and combine with Carbon Dioxide (CO2) (from the Atmosphere) and Water (H2O) (also taken from the soil matrix) to produce the sugars, carbohydrates and proteins, required for growth. Tanamanmendapatkan air danharadaridalamtanah, penyerapannyamelaluibuluakar. Diunduhdari: ……….. http://phasm.co.uk/guerrilla-soil-science/soil-properties/

  5. HUBUNGAN TANAH DAN TANAMAN Most of the water is absorbed by the plants is through root hair zone.  The figure shows the pathway of soil water into root system. Diunduhdari: ……….. http://preuniversity.grkraj.org/html/4_PLANT_AND_WATER_RELATIONSHIP.htm

  6. HUBUNGAN TANAH DAN TANAMAN Figure : shallow soil without a B horizon has low water storage and can restrict root growth and deeper soil with all three horizons with no physical constraints to root growth (Reference:senrm.sa.gov.au). Diunduhdari: ……….. http://festuca.weebly.com/

  7. KUALITAS TANAH SifatFisika Kesuburan Tanah AktivitasBiologis “The ability of soil to function; to supply plants with adequate essential nutrients, have good drainage and aeration, promote root growth and soil biological activities.”

  8. KUALITAS TANAH Konteks: Tipe Tanah, Slope, Iklim……. Problem - Salinitas - Miskin Hara - Erositanah - Drainage • Kualitas Tanah • - Kaya BOT • - SifatOlah • - Infiltrasi Air • Ketersediaan Hara Tanah …OK

  9. EMPAT KOMPONEN TANAH

  10. SIFAT DAN FUNGSI TANAH • Tanah = Soil – selimuttipisdipermukaanbumi, terdiriatasbahan mineral danbahanorganik, air danudaradanmampumendukungpertumbuhantanaman. • Fotosintesis – plant ability to combine CO2 and H2O from the ground into sugar (C6H12O6). Light furnishes the energy for this reaction. Nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus are required for synthesis of plant proteins too.

  11. SIFAT DAN FUNGSI TANAH • Sebagai medium tumbuhtanaman, tanahmemainkanempatfungsi: • Jangkarakartanaman • Suplai air • Menyediakanudara • Menyediakanunsurharatanaman • Ruangporidiantarapadatantanahdiisioleh air danudara. • Air takes up part of the pore space not occupied by water. As the water increases, the air content decreases. In respiration (opposite of photosynthesis), plant roots use oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. So, soil usually contains less oxygen and more carbon dioxide than atmospheric air does. • Millions of microbes live in each ounce of fertile soil. Without them, soils would become inactive and lose their ability to support plants.

  12. TANAH SBG MEDIA TUMBUH TANAMAN • Soils and growing media are made up of two types of materials: • Bahanorganik Tanah (BOT) • Bahan / senyawaanorganik

  13. PROFIL TANAH

  14. PROFIL TANAH • Lapisan-lapisandalamprofiltanahdisebut “horizon” • Profiltanah yang khas: • Horizon A atau Topsoil • most fertile • most organic matter • top or first layer • Horizon B atau Subsoil • Horizon C atauBatuaninduk

  15. PROFIL TANAH Sumber: http://www.eoearth.org/article/Soil Most soils have a distinct profile or sequence of horizontal layers. Generally, these horizons result from the processes of chemical weathering, eluviation, illuviation, and organic decomposition. Up to five layers can be present in a typical soil: O, A, B, C, and R horizons. The O horizon is the topmost layer of most soils. It is composed mainly of plant litter at various levels of decomposition and humus. A horizon is found below the O layer. This layer is composed primarily of mineral particles and has two characteristics: it is the layer in which humus and other organic materials are mixed with mineral particles, and it is a zone of translocation from which eluviation has removed finer particles and soluble substances, both of which may be deposited at a lower layer. Thus the A horizon is dark in color and usually light in texture and porous. The A horizon is commonly differentiated into a darker upper horizon or organic accumulation, and a lower horizon showing loss of material by eluviation. The B horizon is a mineral soil layer which is strongly influenced by illuviation. Consequently, this layer receives material eluviated from the A horizon. The B horizon also has a higher bulk density than the A horizon due to its enrichment of clay particles. The B horizon may be colored by oxides of iron and aluminum or by calcium carbonate illuviated from the A horizon. The C horizon is composed of weathered parent material. The texture of this material can be quite variable with particles ranging in size from clay to boulders. The C horizon has also not been significantly influenced by the pedogenic processes, translocation, and/or organic modification. Typical layers found in a soil profile. (Source: PhysicalGeography.net)

  16. PROFIL TANAH Soil Profile: a vertical section of soil from the ground surface to the parent rock Soil Profile : Soil typically consists of layers of material, called horizons, which differ in both texture and appearance. A soil profile is a cross section of these layers, and it measures the different characteristics of each layer. Sumber: http://topics.wisegeek.com/topics.htm?soil-profile#

  17. PROFIL TANAH Sumber: http://saburchill.com/lab/field/field02.html There are four distinct layers of soil under the leaf litter. Leaf Litter (Layer A) Humus (Layer B) Humus with some minerals  (Layer C) Minerals with very little humus (Layer D)

  18. PROFIL TANAH Soil profile and names of horizons Hypothetical soil profiles with example of codes for horizons. L (or F): Litter (Förna = litter)0: Litter layer of not or little decomposed plant material A: Eluviation layer, divided into:   A1: Upper layer, dark in color, very rich in humus   A2: Mineral layer relatively poor in clay material, iron, aluminium or all three due to leaching B: Illuviation horizon, divided into:   B1: Gradual transition layer from A2 to B2   B2: Layer with maximal illuviation   B3: Gradual transition from B2 to a C-horizon. C: Unconsolidated earth material. Not or only little weathered materialg: g indicates the layers where iron, sedimented under anaerobe conditions, became oxidized later to ironoxide or rost G: G indicates the permanent non-aerate or poorly aerate parts of the soil, characterized by the blue-gray color of ironsulfide (FeS = pyrite). These layers are mostly in the deeper part of the profile. Sumber: http://www.vcbio.science.ru.nl/en/virtuallessons/landscape/soil/

  19. PROFIL TANAH Diunduhdarisumber: http://www.as.wvu.edu/~rbrundage/lecture7b/sld004.htm

  20. FISIKA TANAH

  21. SIFAT FISIKA TANAH • Soils consist of solid, liquid, gaseous and biotic components. • Sand and silt are merely broken down rock frags (consists of quartz, feldspar, mica, or other minerals). Chemically they are essentially inert compared with clay and organic matter, which are responsible for most of the chemical reactions in the soil.

  22. LIAT = CLAY • Clay particles are plastic and sticky when wet. They are highly adsorptive of water, gas, and dissolved substances. • Liatberukuranhalus, bentukpipih; kristalaluminosilicateterdiriatas Si, Al, Fe, Mg, O, dan H. • Adabeberapatipeliat, duatipeliat yang sangatpentingadalahkaolinitedansmectite. Smectite clays have the ability to swell on wetting and shrink when dry.

  23. LIAT = CLAY • Liatadalahkoloid yang bermuatannegatif. This negative charge is the reason that positively charged cations surround each clay particle. The individual cations can be exchanged for each other. • Kalaukationdapatmendekatipermukaanliat, muatannegatifpadapermukaanliatakandinetralisirdanpartikel-partikelliatakansalingberikatandenganjembatankationatauliatmengalamiflokulasi. • Ca dan Mg menjadijembatanpengikatpartikel-partikelliatmenjadiflokul. Keduakationiniukurannyacukupkecildanefektifmengikatbersamapartikel-partikelliat.

  24. TEKSTUR TANAH • TEKSTUR TANAH – PROPORSI RELATIF berbagaiukuranpartikel (separat) dalamtanah. • Nama-namakelasteksturtanah, mis. Pasir-berlempung (Loamy sand), Lempung-debu (Silt loam), Lempung-liat (Clay loam) danLiat-berdebu (silty clay). • The best soils are generally those which contain 10 to 20% clay, with silt and sand in approximately equal amounts, and a fair amount of organic matter.

  25. SEGITIGA TEKSTUR TANAH The content of sand, silt, and clay for the twelve main soil texture classes can be found on this triangle. MisalnyateksturLempungberpasir (Sandy loam ) mengandung 65% pasir, 25% debu (silt), dan 10% liat (clay).

  26. LUAS PERMUKAAN • In comparing clay with sand and silt, it is important to be aware of the relative amount of surface area of these particle size groups, bc it is on the surface that many chemical and physical processes take place. • Partikel yang ukurannyalebihkecil = luaspermukaannyalebihbesar (misalnyaLiat) Sumberreferensi: ………

  27. PARTIKEL PRIMER TANAH

  28. STRUKTUR TANAH • STRUCTUR TANAH – tatanan individual partikel-partikeldalamhubungansatusama lain. Strukturtanahmerupakantatananpartikel-partikelmenjadi “kelompokkecil” ataudisebutagregattanah. • Agregat-agregatkecildapatberikatansatusama lain menjadiagregat yang lebihbesar , disebutGumpalan (ped). • Gumpalan (bongkahan, Ped) bentuknyabermacam-macam , membulat, balok , kolom, pipih. • If the individual particles are arranged in small aggregates with rounded edges, we speak granular structure. This is very desirable for plant growth bc it provides both large and small pores. • Bebertapatanahstrukturnyatidakada. Sandy soils the individual grains act independently of each other. No binding substances hold the particles together, so the soil has no peds.

  29. STRUKTUR TANAH • Bagaimanapartikel-partikeltanahberkelompok: • Butirantunggal • Granular (best for most plants) • Balok - blocky • Pipih - platy • Masif - massive

  30. STRUKTUR TANAH Single Grain

  31. STRUKTUR TANAH Remah - Granular Gumpal - Blocky

  32. STRUKTUR TANAH Pipih - Platy Massive

  33. STRUKTUR TANAH • Strukturtanahsangatpentingbagipetani yang menanamtanamanpadakondisitanahalamiah • Producers of container grown plants add ingredients to make growing media desirable

  34. TEKSTURTANAH TEKSTUR BERLIAT • Ukuranpartikel • Tipetekstur • Berliat • Berlempung • Berpasir • Partikel-partikel halus • Mempunyai kemampuan besar untuk menahan/menyimpan air

  35. TEKSTUR BERLEMPUNG • Kelastekaturlempungmempunyaipasir, bedudanliathampirsama • Teksturinisangat ideal bagipertumbuhantanamansecaraumum TEKSTUR BERPASIR • Partikel ukuran besar • Kemampuan menyimpan air sangat rendah

  36. PORI TANAH • Pori ukuranbesarmudahmerembeskan air dandiisiudarasetelahhujanlebat. Pori inisangatpentingbagisistemaerasitanah. • Pori ukurankecil (porimikro) menahan air melawangayagravitasidandapatmendorong air kearahatasdarimuka-air dengancarakapilaritas.. Pori inipentingdalamsuplai air bagitanaman. • Ideal structure includes large and small pores in proportions that corresponds to the water/air needs of the crop plants given for that culture or climate.

  37. TEMPERATUR TANAH • Just as important to plant growth as air temp. The temp of the surface soil fluctuates greatly both during a 24 hr period and with the seasons. • Kalaupermukaantanahtertutupdengantanaman yang rapatataulapisanmulsa yang tebal, variasidanfluktuasisuhutidakterlalubesardanfluktuasisuhutidakmenembuslapisantanah yang dalam • Suhutanahmempunyaiefeklangsungterhadappertumbuhantanamandanjugamempengaruhiaktivitasmikrobatanah; • Freezing and thawing of the soil water also affects soil structure. Slow and occasional freezing and thawing (like under mulch) is beneficial for soil structure.

  38. WARNA TANAH • Warnatanahdapatmengisyaratkansifat-sifatlainnya. • The color of a surface soil horizon depends mainly on its organic matter content – the darker the soil, the more organic matter it contains. This organic matter imparts favorable properties to the soil, such as better aggregation and a high water-holding capacity. Also, dark soils absorb more radiation during the day, and radiate more heat during the night. • Dalam subsoil, warnatanahmenyatakankondisikebasahandanaerasitanah. • Umumnya, subsoil yang kemerahandankecoklatanmencerminkanaerasi yang bagusdantidakada (sedikitsaja) genangan air • Warnakelabudan olive menyatakankondisigenangan air danreduksikimiawibesi. • A mottled subsoil, one with a splotchy pattern of brownish and grayish colors, is indicative of a fluctuating ground water table.

  39. Munsell Color System • Defined color in terms of Hue, Value and Chroma. • Hue was defined as the actual color, red, blue, green, etc. • Value was defined as how light or dark a color is. • Chroma was defined as how strong or weak a color is. • Soil scientists use the Munsell Color book to determine the color of the soil to help determine in what type of soil it is along with using texture.

  40. BAHAN ORGANIK TANAH

  41. BAHAN ORGANIK TANAH = BOT TIPE BAHAN ORGANIK • Jaringantumbuhandanbinatang yang telahmati • Mengandung carbon • Kompos • Seresah sisa-sisa tumbuhan • Mulsa untuk menutupi permukaan tanah, membantu menyimpan air tanah dan mencegah pertumbuhan gulma • Jerami sisa panen tanaman • Gambut • Pupuk Hijau

  42. BIOLOGI TANAH

  43. BIOLOGI TANAH • Organismehidupdalamtanah • Termasukmikrodndmakro flora dan fauna. Tumbuhan: • Mikro-flora • Bacteria • Fungi • Actinomycetes • Makro – akartanaman

  44. BIOLOGI TANAH Fauna: • Mikro fauna • Nematoda • Protozoa • Makro fauna • Cacingtanah • Rodents (prairie dogs, moles, gophers, etc.) • Arthropods (mites, insects, spiders, etc.) • Gastropods (slugs, snails, etc.)

  45. BIOLOGI TANAH: JARING-JARING MAKANAN

  46. ORGANISME TANAH Vascular plants, mosses (autotrophs) • Macroflora • Microflora • Macrofauna Vascular plants (root hairs), algae, actinomycetes, bacteria, and fungi (auto- and heterotrophs) Vertebrates, arthropods, earthworms, snails… (herbivores, detritivores, predators) • Mesofauna • Microfauna Arthropods, worms (detritivores, predators) Nematodes, protazoa… (detritivores, fungivores, bacterivores, predators)

  47. A cup of soil contains... Bacteria Fungi Protozoa Nematodes Arthropods Earthworms 200 billion { Microflora, or “microbes” 100,000 meters 20 million { Microfauna 100,000 50,000 { Macro- and mesofauna <1 Immobile organisms all primarily found in the rhizosphere, the zone of soil closest to plant roots

  48. MIKROFLORA TANAH Heterotrophs(bacteria, fungi) & autotrophs (algae, cyanobacteria) Dekomposerutama Melepaskanunsurhara yang tersediabagitanaman Menstabilkanagregat (gumpalan) tanah

  49. Aggregattanahdiikatbersamaoleh: Hifa fungi “Glues” bakteri Bahanorganik hyphae clay sand silt bacteria Sumber:

  50. FUNGI TANAH • Agenpelapukan yang utamadalamlingkungantanahmasam • Jaringanhifa: memperbaikistrukturtanah • Dekomposisiselulose • Dapatbersaingdengantanamanuntukmendapatkan nitrogen daritanah