Inter-Ethnic Crime Investigations in Kosovo. Ethnical Demography Pristina (Based on data from OSCE – January 2008). MUNICIPALITY OFPODUJEVE/PODUJEVO Population : estimated 130.000 - 99 % Kos-Alb Minorities : Roma and Ashkali living mainly in Podujevo city and around.
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Ethnical Demography Pristina(Based on data from OSCE – January 2008) MUNICIPALITY OFPODUJEVE/PODUJEVO Population : estimated 130.000 - 99 % Kos-Alb Minorities: Roma and Ashkali living mainly in Podujevo city andaround MUNICIPALITY OF PRISHTINA Population : estimated 500.000 from which 475.OOO Kos-A Minorities: K-Serb 12500, Roma and Ashkali 4550, Bosniaks and Gorani 450 MUNICIPALITY OF OBILIC Population : estimated 30.000 – 25.000 Kos-Alb,. Minorities : 3.400 Kos-S, 550 Roma, 300 Ashkali and 70 Bosniaks MUNICIPALITY OF FUSHE KOSOVO Population : estimated 30.000 – 85 % Kos-Alb Minorities : Kos-S 2800, Ashkali 3800, Roma 600, Egyptians 200, Bosniaks 40, Gorani 30 MUNICIPALITY OF GLOGOC/GLOGOVAC Population : estimated 73.000 Minorities : None – mono-ethnic Kos-Alb community MUNICIPALITY OF LIPJAN Population : etimated 76.000 – 83 % Kos-Alb Minorities : 9500 Kos-S, 1500 Ashkali, 360 Croats, 330 Roma
Ethnical Demography Mitrovica/Mitrovicë M/UNICIPALITY OF MITROVICA/MITROVICE Population : South : 110000 with K-A majority and other minority groups North : appr. 20000 of which 17000 K-S Minorities: South : Turks, Roma, Egyptians, Ashkali North : about 3000 of all the different communities MUNICIPALITY OF LEPOSAVIC Population : estimated 18600 of which 18000 Serbs Minorities: K-Alb 200, Bosniaks 240, 2500 IDP’s(internally displaced persons of which 230 Roma MUNICIPALITY OF ZUBIN POTOK Population : estimated 14900 with K-Serb K-Serbs (14000) Minorities : 800 K-Alb, 229 Croatian refugies MUNICIPALITY OF ZVECAN Population : estimated 17.000 large majority of K-Serbs (16.000) 350 K-Alb mainly in Boletin, Lipje andZhanzha Minorities : 250 Croatians MUNICIPALITY OF VUSHTRRI Population : estimated 102.600, Minorities : 4000 K-Serbs, other minorities Turks, Roma, Egyptians, Ashkali and Circassians MUNICIPALITY OF SKENDERAJ/SRBICA Population : estimated 72.600 with K-Alb majority Minorities : 350 K-Serbs, 50 Ashkali, 15 Bosniaks
Ethnical Demography Peja MUNICIPALITY OF PEJA/PEC Population : estimated 170.000 –K-Alb majority Minorities : most K_Serbs are living in Gorazdevac (850) Bosniaks, Ashkali , Rolma and Egyptians living in rural areas MUNICIPALITY DE ISTOG Population : estimated 56000 Minorities : 1650 Bosniaks, 40 Roma and about 2220 Egyptians. About 800 Serbs are living in Crkolez , Osojan and Suvi Lukavac MUJICIPALITY DE DECANE/DECANI Population : Estimated 40000 - K-Alb majority Minorities : Egyptians, Roma and Bosniaks MUNICIPALITY OF KLINA/KLINE Population : estimated 55000 Minorities : Roma, Ashkali and Egyptians, about 2000 in total. Between 200 and 400 K-S have returned to the region MUNICIPALITY OF DJAKOVA/GJACOVICE Population : estimated 150000 Minorities : 60 Bosniaks living in the town, Roma, Ashkali et Egysptians, about 8600
Ethnical Demography Gjilan MUNICIPALITY OF NOVOBERDE/NOVOBRDO Population : estimated 3900 of which 61 % K-Alb and 31 % K-Serbs Minorities : Roma families living in Bostan village MUNICIPALITY OF KAMENICE/KAMENICA Population : estimated 63.000 – K-Alb 82 % Minorities : 17 % K-Serbs, 500 Roma MUNICIPALITY OF GJILAN/GJILANE Population : Estimated 130.000 – K-Alb majority Minorities : 11800 K-Serbs, 370 Roma, and a few hundred Turks MUNICIPALITY OF VITI/VITINA Population : estimated 60.000 of which 56400 K-Alb Minorities : 3300 K-Serbs, 60 Croatians and 20 Roma
Ethnic Demography Prizren MUNICIPALITY OF MALISHEVE/MALISHEVO Population : estimated 65.000 with a K-Alb majority (99%) Minorities : 65 Roma MUNICIPALITY OF RAHIOVEC/ORAHOVAC Population : estimated 73700 living mainly in rural areas and 23000 in town. Minorities : 550 Roma, 1300 K-Serbs MUNICIPALITY OF SUHA REKA/SUVA REKA Population : estimated 80.000 majority of K-Alb Minorities :No K-Serbs, small community of Roma, 535 Ashkali MUNICIPALITY OF PRIZREN Population : estimated 240.000 – K-Alb majority Minorities : 22.000 Bosniaks, 9000 Turks, 5300 Roma, Ashkali and Egyptians, 30 K-Serbs living in the town of Prizren and 166 in different villages MUNICIPALITY OF DRAGASH Population : estimated 41.000 K-Alb majority (66 %) Minorities : 33 % Gorani/Bosniak living in the Gora region
Ethnic Demohraphy Ferizaj/Urosevac MUNICIPALITY OF SHTIME Population : estimated 29.000 – K-Alb majority Minorities : small number of K-Serbs MUNICIPALITY OF FERIZAJ/UROSEVAC Population : estimated 170.000 with K-Alb majority (160.000) Minorities : K-Ashkali 3750, Roma 260, Gorani 230, Bosniak 68, K-Serbs 70 and Turks 40 MUNICIPALITY OF STREPCE Population : estimated 13600 with K-Serb majority (9100) and 4500 K-Alb Minorities :37 Roma MUNICIPALITY OF KACANIK Population : estimated 43.000 Minorities : Some Roma and K-Serbs
Hate Crime/ Inter-Ethnic Crime • Inter-Ethnic crimes are a branch of the wider category of Hate-motivated crimes
Definition Hate Crime • “Any criminal offence, including offences against persons or property, where the victim, premises, or target of the offence appear to be selected because of their real or perceived connection, attachment, affiliation, support or membership of a real or perceived group identified according to its race, national, ethnic or social origin, association with a national minority or with a political group, language, color, religion, sex, age, mental of physical disability, sexual orientation or other similar factor”
Law based definition Inter-Ethnic crime • Any criminal offence (against persons or property) • Where the victim, premises or target of the offence • Appear to be selected • Because of their real or perceived connection attachment, affiliation, support or membership • Of a real or perceived group • Identified according to its race, ethnic origin, association with a national minority
Legal Provisions Law on Jurisdiction, Case Selection and Case Allocation • Art 3.4 • Art 11.1 Based on these articles hate crimes can be assigned to EULEX Judges and Prosecutors
Legal Provisions Criminal Code of Kosovo • Art. 115 • Art. 116 • Art. 117 • Art. 147 • Art. 158 • Art. 260
EULEX Inter-Ethnic structure Strengthening Department Administration Crime Division Operations Border Organised Criùme Major Crime Inter-Ethnic Criminal Analysis Forensics Pristina (2) Ferizaj/Urosevac (2) Gjilane (2) Peja (2) Prizren (2) Mitrovicë/Mitrovica (3)
Tasks Monitors • All Police stations • Detecting PEMIs • Follow-up of PEMIs and EMIs • Reporting • Intervene
UNMIK Definition PEMI • Vulnerable ethnic group • Offender unknown or from different ethnic group • Circumstances disclose no likely, ethnical-neutral motive
EULEX IE APPROACH DEFINITION PEMI Every incident in which members of two or more ethnic groups are involved, offences with unknown offender against persons or property of minorities
Kosovo Police Evaluation • IE crimes are dealt with in the same way as any other crime • No specific structure or assigned officers • Investigations are generally well conducted • Problem : no cooperation of population • Recognizing of IE Crimes/recording as such • Underreporting
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