Meta-Findings From the Best Evidence Encyclopedia. Robert E. Slavin Johns Hopkins University and University of York Cynthia Lake Johns Hopkins University Susan Davis Success for All Foundation. Best Evidence Encyclopedia (BEE).
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Meta-Findings From the Best Evidence Encyclopedia Robert E. Slavin Johns Hopkins University and University of York Cynthia Lake Johns Hopkins University Susan Davis Success for All Foundation
Best Evidence Encyclopedia (BEE) • Intended to provide easily accessible, scientifically valid summaries of the evidence base for educational programs • Educator’s summary – like Consumer’s Reports • Full reports written for publication in academic journals • www.bestevidence.org
BEE Inclusion Standards • Programs compared to control group • Random or matched • Control group within + .5 SD of experimental group at pretest • Posttests adjusted for pretests • Measures are not inherent to treatment • Duration at least 12 weeks
Main BEE Reviews • Elementary Math – RER, 2008 • Secondary Math – RER, in press • Beginning Reading – submitted • Upper-Elementary Reading – submitted • Secondary Reading – RRQ, 2008 • Struggling Readers – presented at SREE
Meta-Findings: Substantive • Textbooks: ES = +0.06 IN 77 studies • Technology, CAI: ES = +0.11 in 130 studies • Instructional process approaches: • Strongest effects in every review. ES = +0.27 in 100 studies • Cooperative learning, PALS • Classroom management, motivation • Metacognitive skills • Combined Curriculum/CAI with Instructional Process: ES= +0.26 in 39 studies -Read 180 -Success for All
Table 1Weighted Mean Effect Sizes by Program Category CurriculaCAIInstructionalCurr/CAI + ProcessIP Math -Elementary +0.10 (13) +0.19 (38) +0.33 (36) - Math - Secondary +0.03 (40) +0.08 (40) +0.18 (22) - Reading - Beginning +0.13 (8) +0.11 (10) +0.31 (18) +0.28 (22) Reading - Upper Elementary +0.07 (16) +0.06 (34) +0.23 (10) +0.29 (6) Reading - Secondary - +0.10 (8) +0.21 (14) +0.22 (11) Weighted Mean +0.06 (77) +0.11 (130) +0.27 (100) +0.26 (39)
Meta-Findings Specific to Reading • Programs that emphasize structured, systematic phonics get better outcomes • But, outcomes of phonetic approaches depend on quality of teaching • Simple adoption of phonetic books ineffective • Effective programs use extensive training in cooperative learning and other motivation and management methods
Meta-Findings - Methodological • Randomized and matched studies find nearly identical outcomes • Small studies overstate outcomes (so the BEE weights by sample size) • Measures inherent to treatments greatly overstate outcomes (so the BEE excludes them) • Very brief studies overstate outcomes (so the BEE excludes them)
Conclusion • Education policies should identify and help disseminate proven programs of all kinds. • Well- specified programs with extensive professional development to help teachers engage and motivate children are most likely to produce positive outcomes. • Practical, consistent, scientific reviews of research can help educators make good choices for students.
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