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Lecture1 Sentence Structure. There two main points in this lecture: 1.1 Clause Elements ( P 15) 1.2 Basic Clause Types and Their Transformation and Expansion ( P 20). 1.1 Clause elements. A review on what is C lause:

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lecture1 sentence structure
Lecture1Sentence Structure

There two main points in this lecture:

1.1 Clause Elements (P15)

1.2 Basic Clause Types and Their Transformation and Expansion (P20)

1 1 clause elements
1.1 Clause elements
  • A review on what is Clause:

The clause (the simple sentence) : structurally a sequence of phraselogically a construction of “subject + predicate”.

1 subject and predicate
1) Subject and predicate
  • A full-fledged clause can generally be divided into two parts: the subject and the predicate.

SubjectPredicate Henry is the most studious (diligent) in the class.All the men have done their best. Mr. Carter will investigate further.

the subject
The subject:
  • the topic or theme of the sentence, tells of what the sentence is about (known information).
  • The subject is generally realized by a noun phrase or anequivalentof noun phrase
the predicate
The Predicate:
  • says something about the subject and bears the new information (the speaker or writer wants to transmit to the listener or reader).
  • The construction of the predicate, which is more complicated, generally consists of a verb phrase with or without complementation.
2 two ways of s entence a nalysis
2) Two Ways of Sentence Analysis

1. To divide the predicate into predicate verb, object, complement and adverbial. These elements together with the subject make the five clause elements.

Five Clause Elements

3. Object

1. Subject

2. Predicate Verb

Predicate

4. Complement

5. Adverbial

slide8
2. To divide the predicate into two parts: the operator and the predication.
  • The operator is usually the auxiliary or the first auxiliary in a complex verb phrase
  • The predication comprises the main verb with its complementation (object, complement or adverbial).
1 2 basic clause types and their transformation and expansion
1.2 Basic Clause Types and Their Transformation and Expansion
  • In terms of the different combinations of clause elements, English clauses can be classified into seven basic types.
  • Innumerable authentic sentences are structured on the basis of these clause types.
1 basic clause types
1) Basic Clause Types
  • The seven basic clause types are:

SVOSVOASVOCSVoO

SVSVCSVA

These seven combinations of clause elements are wholly or largely determined by the Main Verb in the clause.

s v c
SVC:
  • The main verb in an SVC pattern is a Linking / Copula Verb which must be followed by a Subject Complement.

That car ismine. She isin good health.

s v s v a
SV / SVA:
  • The main verb in an SV pattern is an Intransitive Verb which is not to be followed by any obligatory element except for a limited number of intransitive verbs which require an obligatory Adverbial, thus constituting the pattern SVA.

Every body laughed. The children are sleeping. I livein Beijing. The train leaves at six.

s v o s v o a
SVO / SVOA:
  • The main verb in an SVO pattern is a Monotransitive which must be followed by an object, and with some monotransitives the object must be followed by an obligatory adverbial, thus constituting the pattern SVOA.

Nobody could answerthe question.Liverpool wonthe game.I put the material evidencein front of her.He treatedhervilely.

s v o o
SVoO:
  • The main verb in an SVoO pattern is a Ditransitive Verb which is to be followed by two objects: Indirect and Direct Object.

Mary lent meher car. I mademyselfa cup of tea.

s v o c
SVOC:
  • The main verb in an SVOC pattern is a complex transitive verb which must be followed by an object + object complement.

We made himour spokesman.They electedhimpresident.

2 transformation and expansion of basic clause types
2) Transformation and Expansion of Basic Clause Types

Ways of Transformation:

The basic clause types areall affirmative statements with verbs in the active voice.

Affirmative

Negative

Statement

Question

Active Voice

Passive Voice

ways of expansion
Ways of Expansion:
  • adding modifiers at various levels
  • by coordination and subordination

Coordination

Clause

Compound Sen. Complex Sen. Compound Complex Sen.

Clause

Modifiers

Clause

Subordination

slide18
When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, they were not taken seriously, but, as the evidence began to accumulate, experts from the Zoo felt obliged to investigate, for the descriptions given by people who claimed to have seen the puma were extraordinarily similar.
slide19

C1

C2

  • When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, they were not taken seriously, but, as the evidence began to accumulate, experts from the Zoo felt obliged to investigate, for the descriptions given by people who claimed to have seen the puma were extraordinarily similar.

C4

C3

C5

C6

C7

slide20

When

C1

reports came into London Zoo

that

C2

a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London

, but,

C3

they were not taken seriously

C4

the evidence began to accumulate

as

C5

experts from the Zoo felt obliged to investigate

C6

the descriptions given by people were extraordinarily similar

C7

who claimed to have seen the puma

, for

slide21

The Structure of Sentence 1

C2

Subordinate

that

C4

C1

as

Subordinate

Subordinate

When

Coordinate

C3

C5

, but,

, for

Subordinate

C6

Subordinate

C7

slide22

The Structure of Sentence 1

Coordinate

C3

C5

Subordinate

Subordinate

Subordinate

C1

C4

C6

C7

C2