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DO NOW!. These two graphs represent hormone levels in the blood in different types of feedback loops.

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do now
DO NOW!

These two graphs represent hormone levels in the blood in different types of feedback loops.

On a piece of paper, explain which graph is of hormone levels in a positive feedback loop and which graph is of hormone levels in a negative feedback loop, and explain why you know that is the answer.

After we go over the answers, TURN YOUR PAPER IN!

infectious diseases

Infectious Diseases

Human Body Lesson 7: Standard 10d.Students know there are important differences between bacteria and viruses with respect to their requirements for growth and replication, the body’s primary defenses against bacterial and viral infections, and effective treatments of these infections.

vocabulary
Vocabulary
  • _________: any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
  • ______________: a disease-causing agent
  • _______________________: the idea that microorganisms (germs) cause infectious diseases
  • ____________________: a series of rules used to identify the microorganism that causes a specific disease
  • ________: an animal that carries a pathogen from person to person
  • ___________________: compounds that kill bacteria without harming the cells of the human or animal host. They work by interfering with the cellular processes of microorganisms
vocabulary1
Vocabulary
  • Disease: any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
  • ______________: a disease-causing agent
  • _______________________: the idea that microorganisms (germs) cause infectious diseases
  • ____________________: a series of rules used to identify the microorganism that causes a specific disease
  • ________: an animal that carries a pathogen from person to person
  • ___________________: compounds that kill bacteria without harming the cells of the human or animal host. They work by interfering with the cellular processes of microorganisms
vocabulary2
Vocabulary
  • Disease: any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
  • Pathogen: a disease-causing agent
  • _______________________: the idea that microorganisms (germs) cause infectious diseases
  • ____________________: a series of rules used to identify the microorganism that causes a specific disease
  • ________: an animal that carries a pathogen from person to person
  • ___________________: compounds that kill bacteria without harming the cells of the human or animal host. They work by interfering with the cellular processes of microorganisms
vocabulary3
Vocabulary
  • Disease: any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
  • Pathogen: a disease-causing agent
  • Germ theory of disease: the idea that microorganisms (germs) cause infectious diseases
  • ____________________: a series of rules used to identify the microorganism that causes a specific disease
  • ________: an animal that carries a pathogen from person to person
  • ___________________: compounds that kill bacteria without harming the cells of the human or animal host. They work by interfering with the cellular processes of microorganisms
vocabulary4
Vocabulary
  • Disease: any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
  • Pathogen: a disease-causing agent
  • Germ theory of disease: the idea that microorganisms (germs) cause infectious diseases
  • Koch’s postulates: a series of rules used to identify the microorganism that causes a specific disease
  • ________: an animal that carries a pathogen from person to person
  • ___________________: compounds that kill bacteria without harming the cells of the human or animal host. They work by interfering with the cellular
vocabulary5
Vocabulary
  • Disease: any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
  • Pathogen: a disease-causing agent
  • Germ theory of disease: the idea that microorganisms (germs) cause infectious diseases
  • Koch’s postulates: a series of rules used to identify the microorganism that causes a specific disease
  • Vector: an animal that carries a pathogen from person to person
  • ___________________: compounds that kill bacteria without harming the cells of the human or animal host. They work by interfering with the cellular
vocabulary6
Vocabulary
  • Disease: any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
  • Pathogen: a disease-causing agent
  • Germ theory of disease: the idea that microorganisms (germs) cause infectious diseases
  • Koch’s postulates: a series of rules used to identify the microorganism that causes a specific disease
  • Vector: an animal that carries a pathogen from person to person
  • Antibiotics: compounds that kill bacteria without harming the cells of the human or animal host. They work by interfering with the cellular processes of microorganisms
the germ theory of disease
The Germ Theory of Disease
  • Before the _____ ______ of disease, people believed that diseases were caused by curses, evil spirits, bad smells, and miasmas (stinky clouds and fogs).
  • Now, we know that infectious diseases are caused by _____________ (germs).
the germ theory of disease1
The Germ Theory of Disease
  • Before the germ theory of disease, people believed that diseases were caused by curses, evil spirits, bad smells, and miasmas (stinky clouds and fogs).
  • Now, we know that infectious diseases are caused by _____________ (germs).
the germ theory of disease2
The Germ Theory of Disease
  • Before the germ theory of disease, people believed that diseases were caused by curses, evil spirits, bad smells, and miasmas (stinky clouds and fogs).
  • Now, we know that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms (germs).
questions for you
Questions for YOU
  • What does the germ theory of disease state?
  • Before the discovery of microorganisms, what did people think diseases were caused by?

Write the answers on your iPad using awwapp.com or any whiteboard app

koch s postulates
Koch’s Postulates

Koch’s postulates are how scientists show that a specific microorganism causes a specific disease.

  • The pathogen should _______be present in a sick organism and ______be present in a healthy one
  • The pathogen must be _________from a sick host organism in a laboratory and grown in ____ _______
  • When the cultured pathogens are put into a new host, they should cause the _____ _____ that the original host organism had
  • The pathogen must be ___________from the second host and should be __________to the original pathogen
koch s postulates1
Koch’s Postulates

Koch’s postulates are how scientists show that a specific microorganism causes a specific disease.

  • The pathogen should always be present in a sick organism and ______be present in a healthy one
  • The pathogen must be _________from a sick host organism in a laboratory and grown in ____ _______
  • When the cultured pathogens are put into a new host, they should cause the _____ _____ that the original host organism had
  • The pathogen must be ___________from the second host and should be __________to the original pathogen
koch s postulates2
Koch’s Postulates

Koch’s postulates are how scientists show that a specific microorganism causes a specific disease.

  • The pathogen should always be present in a sick organism and never be present in a healthy one
  • The pathogen must be _________from a sick host organism in a laboratory and grown in ____ _______
  • When the cultured pathogens are put into a new host, they should cause the _____ _____ that the original host organism had
  • The pathogen must be ___________from the second host and should be __________to the original pathogen
koch s postulates3
Koch’s Postulates

Koch’s postulates are how scientists show that a specific microorganism causes a specific disease.

  • The pathogen should always be present in a sick organism and never be present in a healthy one
  • The pathogen must be isolated from a sick host organism in a laboratory and grown in ____ _______
  • When the cultured pathogens are put into a new host, they should cause the _____ _____ that the original host organism had
  • The pathogen must be ___________from the second host and should be __________to the original pathogen
koch s postulates4
Koch’s Postulates

Koch’s postulates are how scientists show that a specific microorganism causes a specific disease.

  • The pathogen should always be present in a sick organism and never be present in a healthy one
  • The pathogen must be isolated from a sick host organism in a laboratory and grown in pure culture
  • When the cultured pathogens are put into a new host, they should cause the _____ _____ that the original host organism had
  • The pathogen must be ___________from the second host and should be __________to the original pathogen
koch s postulates5
Koch’s Postulates

Koch’s postulates are how scientists show that a specific microorganism causes a specific disease.

  • The pathogen should always be present in a sick organism and never be present in a healthy one
  • The pathogen must be isolated from a sick host organism in a laboratory and grown in pure culture
  • When the cultured pathogens are put into a new host, they should cause the same disease that the original host organism had
  • The pathogen must be ___________from the second host and should be __________to the original pathogen
koch s postulates6
Koch’s Postulates

Koch’s postulates are how scientists show that a specific microorganism causes a specific disease.

  • The pathogen should always be present in a sick organism and never be present in a healthy one
  • The pathogen must be isolated from a sick host organism in a laboratory and grown in pure culture
  • When the cultured pathogens are put into a new host, they should cause the same disease that the original host organism had
  • The pathogen must be recovered from the second host and should be __________to the original pathogen
koch s postulates7
Koch’s Postulates

Koch’s postulates are how scientists show that a specific microorganism causes a specific disease.

  • The pathogen should always be present in a sick organism and never be present in a healthy one
  • The pathogen must be isolated from a sick host organism in a laboratory and grown in pure culture
  • When the cultured pathogens are put into a new host, they should cause the same disease that the original host organism had
  • The pathogen must be recovered from the second host and should be identical to the original pathogen
question for you
Question for YOU!

Before Koch came up with his postulates, was there a way to know for certain that a specific microorganism causes a specific disease?

Write the answer on your iPad using awwapp.com or any whiteboard app

agents of disease
Agents of Disease
  • Many microorganisms live in the human body ________causing diseases.
  • Some microorganisms are even __________, such as the bacteria that live in your gut.
  • Other microorganisms may _______cells or release _____as they grow, causing _______.
  • Some disease-causing agents are carried to humans by _______such as cats, mosquitos, and fleas
agents of disease1
Agents of Disease
  • Many microorganisms live in the human body without causing diseases.
  • Some microorganisms are even __________, such as the bacteria that live in your gut.
  • Other microorganisms may _______cells or release _____as they grow, causing _______.
  • Some disease-causing agents are carried to humans by _______such as cats, mosquitos, and fleas
agents of disease2
Agents of Disease
  • Many microorganisms live in the human body without causing diseases.
  • Some microorganisms are even beneficial, such as the bacteria that live in your gut.
  • Other microorganisms may _______cells or release _____as they grow, causing _______.
  • Some disease-causing agents are carried to humans by _______such as cats, mosquitos, and fleas
agents of disease3
Agents of Disease
  • Many microorganisms live in the human body without causing diseases.
  • Some microorganisms are even beneficial, such as the bacteria that live in your gut.
  • Other microorganisms may destroy cells or release _____as they grow, causing _______.
  • Some disease-causing agents are carried to humans by _______such as cats, mosquitos, and fleas
agents of disease4
Agents of Disease
  • Many microorganisms live in the human body without causing diseases.
  • Some microorganisms are even beneficial, such as the bacteria that live in your gut.
  • Other microorganisms may destroy cells or release toxins as they grow, causing _______.
  • Some disease-causing agents are carried to humans by _______such as cats, mosquitos, and fleas
agents of disease5
Agents of Disease
  • Many microorganisms live in the human body without causing diseases.
  • Some microorganisms are even beneficial, such as the bacteria that live in your gut.
  • Other microorganisms may destroy cells or release toxins as they grow, causing disease.
  • Some disease-causing agents are carried to humans by _______such as cats, mosquitos, and fleas
agents of disease6
Agents of Disease
  • Many microorganisms live in the human body without causing diseases.
  • Some microorganisms are even beneficial, such as the bacteria that live in your gut.
  • Other microorganisms may destroy cells or release toxins as they grow, causing disease.
  • Some disease-causing agents are carried to humans by vectors such as cats, mosquitos, and fleas
viruses
Viruses
  • Viruses are ___-_______, ________________ invaders
  • Viruses consist of just a protein coat called a _____, a _____ ____, and sometimes a bit of membrane that is stolen from the host cell
  • Viruses can infect almost every type of organism
  • Viruses inject their genetic material into the ____cell where it goes to the nucleus and hijacks the cellular machinery. When many new viruses have been made, they are ________ from the cell. Sometimes the cell bursts when new viruses are released
  • Some viral diseases include the common cold, the flu, smallpox, warts, and HIV/AIDS

ANTIBIOTICS DO NOT KILL VIRUSES!!!

viruses1
Viruses
  • Viruses are non-living, ________________ invaders
  • Viruses consist of just a protein coat called a _____, a _____ ____, and sometimes a bit of membrane that is stolen from the host cell
  • Viruses can infect almost every type of organism
  • Viruses inject their genetic material into the ____cell where it goes to the nucleus and hijacks the cellular machinery. When many new viruses have been made, they are ________ from the cell. Sometimes the cell bursts when new viruses are released
  • Some viral diseases include the common cold, the flu, smallpox, warts, and HIV/AIDS

ANTIBIOTICS DO NOT KILL VIRUSES!!!

viruses2
Viruses
  • Viruses are non-living, intracellular invaders
  • Viruses consist of just a protein coat called a _____, a _____ ____, and sometimes a bit of membrane that is stolen from the host cell
  • Viruses can infect almost every type of organism
  • Viruses inject their genetic material into the ____cell where it goes to the nucleus and hijacks the cellular machinery. When many new viruses have been made, they are ________ from the cell. Sometimes the cell bursts when new viruses are released
  • Some viral diseases include the common cold, the flu, smallpox, warts, and HIV/AIDS

ANTIBIOTICS DO NOT KILL VIRUSES!!!

viruses3
Viruses
  • Viruses are non-living, intracellular invaders
  • Viruses consist of just a protein coat called a capsid, a _____ ____, and sometimes a bit of membrane that is stolen from the host cell
  • Viruses can infect almost every type of organism
  • Viruses inject their genetic material into the ____cell where it goes to the nucleus and hijacks the cellular machinery. When many new viruses have been made, they are ________ from the cell. Sometimes the cell bursts when new viruses are released
  • Some viral diseases include the common cold, the flu, smallpox, warts, and HIV/AIDS

ANTIBIOTICS DO NOT KILL VIRUSES!!!

viruses4
Viruses
  • Viruses are non-living, intracellular invaders
  • Viruses consist of just a protein coat called a capsid, a nucleic acid, and sometimes a bit of membrane that is stolen from the host cell
  • Viruses can infect almost every type of organism
  • Viruses inject their genetic material into the ____cell where it goes to the nucleus and hijacks the cellular machinery. When many new viruses have been made, they are ________ from the cell. Sometimes the cell bursts when new viruses are released
  • Some viral diseases include the common cold, the flu, smallpox, warts, and HIV/AIDS

ANTIBIOTICS DO NOT KILL VIRUSES!!!

viruses5
Viruses
  • Viruses are non-living, intracellular invaders
  • Viruses consist of just a protein coat called a capsid, a nucleic acid, and sometimes a bit of membrane that is stolen from the host cell
  • Viruses can infect almost every type of organism
  • Viruses inject their genetic material into the host cell where it goes to the nucleus and hijacks the cellular machinery. When many new viruses have been made, they are ________ from the cell. Sometimes the cell bursts when new viruses are released
  • Some viral diseases include the common cold, the flu, smallpox, warts, and HIV/AIDS

ANTIBIOTICS DO NOT KILL VIRUSES!!!

viruses6
Viruses
  • Viruses are non-living, intracellular invaders
  • Viruses consist of just a protein coat called a capsid, a nucleic acid, and sometimes a bit of membrane that is stolen from the host cell
  • Viruses can infect almost every type of organism
  • Viruses inject their genetic material into the host cell where it goes to the nucleus and hijacks the cellular machinery. When many new viruses have been made, they are released from the cell. Sometimes the cell bursts when new viruses are released
  • Some viral diseases include the common cold, the flu, smallpox, warts, and HIV/AIDS

ANTIBIOTICS DO NOT KILL VIRUSES!!!

bacteria
Bacteria
  • Most bacteria are harmless to humans

There are two ways that bacteria can cause disease:

  • Some bacteria _____ ____ human tissues for food
  • Some bacteria _______ _____ that harm the body
  • Examples of bacterial diseases are strep infections, staph infections, diptheria, botulism, and anthrax.
  • Many bacterial diseases can be treated and cured with ___________
bacteria1
Bacteria
  • Most bacteria are harmless to humans

There are two ways that bacteria can cause disease:

  • Some bacteria break down human tissues for food
  • Some bacteria _______ _____ that harm the body
  • Examples of bacterial diseases are strep infections, staph infections, diptheria, botulism, and anthrax.
  • Many bacterial diseases can be treated and cured with ___________
bacteria2
Bacteria
  • Most bacteria are harmless to humans

There are two ways that bacteria can cause disease:

  • Some bacteria break down human tissues for food
  • Some bacteria release toxins that harm the body
  • Examples of bacterial diseases are strep infections, staph infections, diptheria, botulism, and anthrax.
  • Many bacterial diseases can be treated and cured with ___________
bacteria3
Bacteria
  • Most bacteria are harmless to humans

There are two ways that bacteria can cause disease:

  • Some bacteria break down human tissues for food
  • Some bacteria release toxins that harm the body
  • Examples of bacterial diseases are strep infections, staph infections, diptheria, botulism, and anthrax.
  • Many bacterial diseases can be treated and cured with antibiotics
question for you1
Question for YOU!
  • What are some of the differences between bacterial cells (prokaryotes) and eukaryotic cells? (Hint – what are bacteria missing?)

Write the answer on your iPad using awwapp.com or any whiteboard app

protists
Protists
  • Most protists that cause disease are also called parasites. They are __________.
  • ________ is a disease caused by a protist called Plasmodium that is carried by a mosquito ______. It causes cycles of fevers, chills, and sweats. It is deadly if left untreated
  • ________disease is caused by the protistTypanosomacruziand carried by “kissing bugs” (the vectors). It causes lesions (sores) on the heart and slows down peristalsis, the movement that pushes partially digested food through your gut. Some researchers believe that Charles Darwin died of Chagas disease.
protists1
Protists
  • Most protists that cause disease are also called parasites. They are eukaryotes.
  • _______ is a disease caused by a protist called Plasmodium that is carried by a mosquito ______. It causes cycles of fevers, chills, and sweats. It is deadly if left untreated
  • ________disease is caused by the protistTypanosomacruziand carried by “kissing bugs” (the vectors). It causes lesions (sores) on the heart and slows down peristalsis, the movement that pushes partially digested food through your gut. Some researchers believe that Charles Darwin died of Chagas disease.
protists2
Protists
  • Most protists that cause disease are also called parasites. They are eukaryotes.
  • Malaria is a disease caused by a protist called Plasmodium that is carried by a mosquito ______. It causes cycles of fevers, chills, and sweats. It is deadly if left untreated
  • ________disease is caused by the protistTypanosomacruziand carried by “kissing bugs” (the vectors). It causes lesions (sores) on the heart and slows down peristalsis, the movement that pushes partially digested food through your gut. Some researchers believe that Charles Darwin died of Chagas disease.
protists3
Protists
  • Most protists that cause disease are also called parasites. They are eukaryotes.
  • Malaria is a disease caused by a protist called Plasmodium that is carried by a mosquito vector. It causes cycles of fevers, chills, and sweats. It is deadly if left untreated
  • ________disease is caused by the protistTypanosomacruziand carried by “kissing bugs” (the vectors). It causes lesions (sores) on the heart and slows down peristalsis, the movement that pushes partially digested food through your gut. Some researchers believe that Charles Darwin died of Chagas disease.
protists4
Protists
  • Most protists that cause disease are also called parasites. They are eukaryotes.
  • Malaria is a disease caused by a protist called Plasmodium that is carried by a mosquito vector. It causes cycles of fevers, chills, and sweats. It is deadly if left untreated
  • Chagas disease is caused by the protistTypanosomacruziand carried by “kissing bugs” (the vectors). It causes lesions (sores) on the heart and slows down peristalsis, the movement that pushes partially digested food through your gut. Some researchers believe that Charles Darwin died of Chagas disease.
worms
Worms
  • Worms are animals that can cause disease in humans.
  • Tapeworms and hookworms infect the gut.
  • From the 1900s to the 1950s, some people intentionally swallowed tapeworms to lose weight
fungi
Fungi
  • Some fungi can also cause diseases in humans.
  • Tinea is a fungus that causes ________ ____. It can also infect the scalp and cause ___________.
  • Other fungi can infect the mouth, throat, fingernails, and toenails
fungi1
Fungi
  • Some fungi can also cause diseases in humans.
  • Tinea is a fungus that causes Athlete’s Foot. It can also infect the scalp and cause _________.
  • Other fungi can infect the mouth, throat, fingernails, and toenails
fungi2
Fungi
  • Some fungi can also cause diseases in humans.
  • Tinea is a fungus that causes Athlete’s Foot. It can also infect the scalp and cause ringworm.
  • Other fungi can infect the mouth, throat, fingernails, and toenails
how diseases are spread
How Diseases are Spread
  • _________ _________:
    • Touching
    • Coughing on someone
    • Sexual contact
  • ___________________:
    • Undercooked food
    • Dirty water
  • _________ _________:
    • Vectors carry diseases
    • Ticks & fleas
    • Reptiles
    • Wild animals
how diseases are spread1
How Diseases are Spread
  • Physical contact:
    • Touching
    • Coughing on someone
    • Sexual contact
  • ___________________:
    • Undercooked food
    • Dirty water
  • _________ _________:
    • Vectors carry diseases
    • Ticks & fleas
    • Reptiles
    • Wild animals
how diseases are spread2
How Diseases are Spread
  • Physical contact:
    • Touching
    • Coughing on someone
    • Sexual contact
  • Contaminated food and water:
    • Undercooked food
    • Dirty water
  • _________ _________:
    • Vectors carry diseases
    • Ticks & fleas
    • Reptiles
    • Wild animals
how diseases are spread3
How Diseases are Spread
  • Physical contact:
    • Touching
    • Coughing on someone
    • Sexual contact
  • Contaminated food and water:
    • Undercooked food
    • Dirty water
  • Infected animals:
    • Vectors carry diseases
    • Ticks & fleas
    • Reptiles
    • Wild animals
fighting infectious diseases
Fighting Infectious Diseases
  • Antibiotics can kill ________
  • Other prescription drugs can kill _____ and ________, though these are more difficult to kill
  • ____-__-_______ drugs treat only the ________of infections. They cannot cure diseases
  • ________ situations where you may contract a disease and _______ your _____frequently can help _______the spread of infectious diseases
fighting infectious diseases1
Fighting Infectious Diseases
  • Antibiotics can kill bacteria
  • Other prescription drugs can kill _____ and ________, though these are more difficult to kill
  • ____-__-_______ drugs treat only the ________of infections. They cannot cure diseases
  • ________ situations where you may contract a disease and _______ your _____frequently can help _______the spread of infectious diseases
fighting infectious diseases2
Fighting Infectious Diseases
  • Antibiotics can kill bacteria
  • Other prescription drugs can kill fungi and protists, though these are more difficult to kill
  • ____-__-_______ drugs treat only the ________of infections. They cannot cure diseases
  • ________ situations where you may contract a disease and _______ your _____frequently can help _______the spread of infectious diseases
fighting infectious diseases3
Fighting Infectious Diseases
  • Antibiotics can kill bacteria
  • Other prescription drugs can kill fungi and protists, though these are more difficult to kill
  • Over-the-counter drugs treat only the symptoms of infections. They cannot cure diseases
  • ________ situations where you may contract a disease and _______ your _____frequently can help _______the spread of infectious diseases
fighting infectious diseases4
Fighting Infectious Diseases
  • Antibiotics can kill bacteria
  • Other prescription drugs can kill fungi and protists, though these are more difficult to kill
  • Over-the-counter drugs treat only the symptoms of infections. They cannot cure diseases
  • Avoiding situations where you may contract a disease and washing your hands frequently can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases
activity exit ticket
Activity/Exit Ticket
  • There is a new virus called MERS that has been spreading. The first confirmed case in the U.S. occurred in Indiana just a few days ago.
  • With a partner or by yourself, read this article http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/breaking/chi-health-officials-to-hold-briefing-today-on-first-us-mers-case-20140505,0,1291781.story
  • Using your iPad, research the MERS virus and find the answers to the following questions. Write your answers on a piece of paper and turn them in as you leave.
    • Where did the MERS virus originate?
    • What does MERS stand for?
    • What is an incubation period, and how long is the incubation for the MERS virus?
    • How can you reduce your chances of contracting MERS?
    • Should we be concerned about the MERS virus? Do you think it is going to spread throughout the entire U.S.? Why or why not.