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Submitted to: Mr. Halpin Submitted by: Stephanie Magri, Rosemary Hoang, Alexandria Zanotti Date: Monday, January 17, 200

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Blizzards, Extreme Cold and Heat. Submitted to: Mr. Halpin Submitted by: Stephanie Magri, Rosemary Hoang, Alexandria Zanotti Date: Monday, January 17, 2005.

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Extreme Cold and Heat

Submitted to: Mr. Halpin

Submitted by: Stephanie Magri, Rosemary Hoang, Alexandria Zanotti

Date: Monday, January 17, 2005

A blizzard is a severe storm with winds of 55km/h or greater, low temperatures, and blowing snow that reduces visibility to 0.2 km or less.
what causes blizzards
What causes blizzards?
  • Blizzards are formed similarly to thunderstorms.
  • Instead of warm temperatures that bring rain, the cold temperature brings snow.
  • Low temperatures and high winds combined with heavy snowfall create blizzards.
  • In Canada and the northern United States blizzards come from a warm air mass, filled with moisture from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean, moves northward and meets a cold Arctic air mass under a strong jet stream.
  • They can also be caused by the combination of strong winds and the lake effect.
the lake effect
The Lake Effect
  • The lake effect is when an air mass moves across a large body of water, and it picks up moisture from the water. In winter, the water tends to be warmer than the surrounding land and air. When the moisture-laden air mass reaches the far side of the body of water, where the temperature is lower, the moisture becomes snow.
  • For example, the Great Lakes.
where are blizzards most and least commonly found
Where are blizzards most and least commonly found?
  • Blizzards are found all over the world, except near the equator. They are especially common in the north and south poles, because it is colder there.
  • Since the temperatures are very warm near the equator blizzards don’t often occur there. For example, in deserts.
have there been blizzards in windsor
Have there been blizzards in Windsor?
  • There have been blizzards in Windsor, but none that have been very severe.
  • Since the Great Lakes are near us, they moderate the temperatures to prevent serious blizzards from occurring in our area.
recent blizzards
Recent Blizzards

In January 1999 there was a blizzard that struck Toronto. There was large amounts of snow, and high winds, that caused Canada’s largest airport to shut down. That month’s snow removal bill cost $38 million.

how often do they take place
How often do they take place?
  • Blizzards usually take place during the winter months.
  • For us, this would generally be from December to March.
dangers of blizzards
Dangers of Blizzards
  • Blizzards can have destructive effects on transportation, including roads, water, highways, and can close airports.
  • They can even cause avalanches in mountains.
  • It can also affect electricity because power lines can be broken and utility poles can be blown over, which can lead to a loss of electricity for long periods of time.
weather factors that interact to produce blizzards
Weather factors that interact to produce blizzards:
  • Extreme cold temperatures
  • High winds
  • Warm and cold air masses that collide
  • The Lake Effect
  • Snow
interesting facts
Interesting Facts
  • Winter storms can last for hours or even days and, at their worst, they can block roads and disrupt utilities.
  • Fresh snow is a great insulator. Ten inches of fresh snow is approximately equal to a six-inch-layer of fiberglass insulation.
what is a heat wave
What is a heat wave?
  • It is a period of more than three days at or above 32°C.

Extreme Heat

  • Extreme heat is caused by a large high pressure mass of air either staying in one place, or moving very slowly across the land.
  • It occurs in the summer solstice, most often in July and August in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • It occurs most often in the equatorial and tropical regions because the sun shines straight down concentrating on that one area of the Earth.
  • Extreme heat is least likely to occur in the polar regions because it receives less light and warmth.
  • If a heat wave goes on for a long time, a drought may be declared.
  • In 1976, the worst drought on record was recorded in California as well as in Europe.
  • In 1988 the midwest of the United States suffered from a drought that was the worst the area had experienced in 50 years.
dangers of extreme heat
Dangers of Extreme Heat
  • Dehydration
  • Heat cramps
  • Fainting
  • Heat exhaustion
  • Heatstroke
when does it happen
When does it happen?
  • The most extreme heat waves happen when the temperature in the troposphere decreases with increasing altitude. But sometime a temperature inversion forms.
  • A low-level temperature inversion occurs when warm air from a high-pressure system blows over cooler air at ground level. Since the air near the ground is cooler than the air above, it tends to hang around.
weather factors that interact to produce extreme heat
Weather Factors that interact to produce extreme heat
  • High temperatures that stay stable over a period of 3-4 days
  • Humidity
  • Moisture
interesting facts1
Interesting Facts
  • During a heat wave, the water level in rivers, lakes and reservoirs drops. If the hot weather goes on very long they may even dry up.
  • Extreme heat can cause a heat stroke, when the body’s regulating system fails. The body temperature rises to 41°C or more. Confusion, unconsciousness, and even death can follow.
  • Within the last 20 years over 8,000 people have died from extreme heat.
Extreme cold is caused by polar and arctic air masses, winds and low temperatures.
  • Extreme cold occurs in the winter months, when the factors are strongest.
  • It occurs when the temperature is below -12.2°C.
  • It occurs mostly near the north and south poles, where the temperature is extremely low.
  • It is least common to occur near the equator, because the sun shine directly there, making it warm.
recent occurrences of extreme cold
Recent Occurrences of Extreme Cold
  • January 10, 2004- It was extremely cold in the Northeast United States with wind chill readings well below zero.
  • In a city in New York the wind chill reached -26°C.
potential for destruction
Potential for Destruction
  • Extreme cold can be destructive to the human body if in the cold for long enough, such as:
  • Frostbite, which is skin damage caused by freezing.
  • Hypothermia happens when the core body temperature falls to 35°C or lower.
weather factors that interact to produce extreme cold
Weather Factors that interact to produce Extreme Cold:
  • Very low temperatures are stable over a period of 3-4 days
  • The wind chill factor is a measure of the cooling effect of wind on a body; the effect of wind in the winter can be dangerous.
  • If the wind chill factor is low, it will make the temperature seem even colder.

Interesteing Facts

  • Mail carriers in Winnipeg, Manitoba were excused from walking their routes when the wind chill factor dropped to -65°C.
  • WINTER DEATHS: Everyone is potentially at risk with the actual threat depending upon individual situations. Recent winter death statistics in the United States indicate the following:
  • Related to ice and snow: About 70% occur in automobiles; 25% are people caught out in the storm; and the majority are males over 40 years old.
  • Related to exposure to cold: 50% are people over 60 years old; over 75% are males; and about 20% occur in the home.