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Environmental Monitoring: Database and Beyond
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  1. Environmental Monitoring:Database and Beyond Chengyang Zhang Computer Science Department University of North Texas

  2. Overview • Data Transmission and Storage • Database Design • DBMS • Database Schema Design • Data Presentation • Traditional Web Interface • Virtual Earth / Google Map • Data Exchange • XML Derivatives • SensorML/O&M • Web Services • Sensor Web Enablement(SWE)

  3. Overview • Data Transmission and Storage • Database Design • DBMS • Database Schema Design • Data Presentation • Traditional Web Interface • Virtual Earth / Google Map • Data Exchange • XML Derivatives • SensorML/O&M • Web Services • Sensor Web Enablement(SWE)

  4. Wireless Sensor Nodes Base Station Node Client Data Browsing and Processing Internet Database Server System Architecture1 Data loggers Gateway (Single Board Computer) GPRS Link GPRS Modem 1 Jerry’s slide

  5. Current Data Flow Pull COD Daemon Push UV Daemon Wireless Data Daemon DBChecker Daemon Pull/Push

  6. Raw Data Format • COD FTP Data • Directory Structure: YEAR/MONTH/cod_date_time • 2007/9/cod_2007-9-21_8.30 • File Format: Station_Name/Gate_Name, date, time, rain_guage_reading/gate_status • RG1, 9/21/2007, 8:30:57 AM, 0.00 • HC_N_Gate_STATUS, 9/21/2007, 8:30:57 AM, UP • UV Data • Directory Structure: YEAR/MONTH/uv_date_time.txt • 2007/9/uv_2007-9-15_12.30 • File Format: Date, Time, SUV #1, UVA #2, Temp 1, Temp2 • “15.09.2007”, “12:30”, 1.367, 0.000, 32, 0

  7. datetime Sensor Data Raw Data Format(cont.) • Wireless Data • Data Transmission Rate • every hour (send 4 data packets) • can be adjusted • Data Packet Format • Directory Structure: YEAR/MONTH/greenbelt_date_time • File Format: Date, time, value #1, value #2, …… 4 byte 18 * 4 bytes or More

  8. Overview • Data Transmission and Storage • Database Design • DBMS • Database Schema Design • Data Presentation • Traditional Web Interface • Virtual Earth / Google Map • Data Exchange • EML • SensorML • KML

  9. DBMS Selection • Free/Open Source v.s. Commercial Database • We choose Free! • PostgreSQL v.s. MySQL • We choose PostgreSQL! • Data Integrity Check • Server-side Programming • Spatial Cartridge Support(PostGIS)

  10. Overview • Data Transmission and Storage • Database Design • DBMS • Database Schema Design • Data Presentation • Traditional Web Interface • Virtual Earth / Google Map • Data Exchange • EML • SensorML • KML

  11. Database Schema Design

  12. Overview • Data Transmission and Storage • Database Design • DBMS • Database Schema Design • Data Presentation • Traditional Web Interface • Virtual Earth / Google Map • Data Exchange • XML Derivatives • SensorML/O&M • Web Services • Sensor Web Enablement(SWE)

  13. Web Interface (Powered by PHP)

  14. Web Interface (Powered by PHP)

  15. Overview • Data Transmission and Storage • Database Design • DBMS • Database Schema Design • Data Presentation • Traditional Web Interface • Virtual Earth / Google Map • Data Exchange • XML Derivatives • SensorML/O&M • Web Services • Sensor Web Enablement(SWE)

  16. Virtual Earth Interface

  17. Google Map Interface (KML)

  18. Overview • Data Transmission and Storage • Database Design • DBMS • Database Schema Design • Data Presentation • Traditional Web Interface • Virtual Earth / Google Map • Data Exchange • XML Derivatives • SensorML/O&M • Web Services • Sensor Web Enablement(SWE)

  19. Multi-Layer System Structure* * From CRI proposal

  20. Data Exchange • Motivation • Retrieve data from Web-enabled Sensor Data Repositories • Publish our sensor data as web-enabled service • Technology Behind the Scene • XML • Web Service

  21. Overview • Data Transmission and Storage • Database Design • DBMS • Database Schema Design • Data Presentation • Traditional Web Interface • Virtual Earth / Google Map • Data Exchange • XML Derivatives • SensorML/O&M • Web Services • Sensor Web Enablement(SWE)

  22. XML Derivatives • KML (Keyhole Markup Language ) • A markup language for displaying geographical data in an earth browser* • Example <kml> <Placemark> <name>City of Denton: Doyle and Freeman</name> <description>Rain Gauge Reading: 0 inch </description> <Point> <coordinates>-97.132,33.214 </coordinates> </Point> </Placemark> </kml> * http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/index.html

  23. eml packageId: UNTCSE.1.1 system: knb dataset title: Greenbelt Wireless Soil Moisture Dataset creator individualName surName:Chengyang contact individualName surName: Shu XML Derivatives (Cont.) • EML (Ecological Metadata Language) • A markup language developed by/for the ecological discipline* * http://knb.ecoinformatics.org/software/eml/

  24. XML Derivatives (cont.) • GML (Geography Markup Language )* • A markup language defined by the OGC to express geographical fatures • Example <gml:Polygon><gml:outerBoundaryIs><gml:LinearRing> <gml:coordinates>0,0 100,0 100,100 0,100 0,0</gml:coordinates> </gml:LinearRing> </gml:outerBoundaryIs> </gml:Polygon> <gml:Point> <gml:coordinates>100,200</gml:coordinates> </gml:Point> <gml:LineString> <gml:coordinates>100,200 150,300</gml:coordinates> </gml:LineString> * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_Markup_Language

  25. Overview • Data Transmission and Storage • Database Design • DBMS • Database Schema Design • Data Presentation • Traditional Web Interface • Virtual Earth / Google Map • Data Exchange • XML Derivatives • SensorML/O&M • Web Services • Sensor Web Enablement(SWE)

  26. XML Derivatives (cont.) • SensorML (Sensor Model Language )* • An OGC standard o describe processes of sensor measurements and observations • discover sensors • obtain sensor information • access sensor observations • receive alerts * http://vast.uah.edu/SensorML/

  27. SensorML (cont.) • SensorML (Sensor Model Language )* * http://vast.uah.edu/SensorML/

  28. O&M • O&M (Observations & Measurements)* * www.buyya.com/papers/SensorWebChapter.pdf

  29. Overview • Data Transmission and Storage • Database Design • DBMS • Database Schema Design • Data Presentation • Traditional Web Interface • Virtual Earth / Google Map • Data Exchange • XML Derivatives • SensorML/O&M • Web Services • Sensor Web Enablement(SWE)

  30. Web Services* • Web Services – A program that can be executed through HTTP and XML • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) • Request / Response • WSDL (Web Service Description Language) • Describes how to connect and query information • UDDI (Universal Description Discovery and Integration) • Service Registration And Discovery * http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/XML:_Managing_Data_Exchange/Web_services

  31. Web Services(cont.) • SOAP Examples • Request <m:SoilMoistureDataRequest xmlns:SOAPSDK1="http://www.unt.edu/cri/xml/wsdl/SoilMositure.wsdl"> <latitude xsi:type="xsd:decimal">33.214</latitude> <longitude xsi:type="xsd:decimal“>-97.132</longitude> <startDate xsi:type="xsd:date"></startDate> <numDays xsi:type="xsd:integer">1</numDays> <format>24 Hourly</format> </m:SoilMoistureDataRequest > • Response <SoilMoistureDataResponse xmlns:SOAPSDK1=" http://www.unt.edu/cri/xml/wsdl/SoilMositure.wsdl "> <dwmlByDayOut xsi:type="xsd:string">.....</dwmlByDayOut> </ SoilMoistureDataResponse >

  32. Web Services(cont.) • WSDL Examples <definitions xmlns:SOAP-ENV=“http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/” …> <message name="SoilMoistureDataRequest"> <part name="latitude" type="xsd:decimal"/> <part name="longitude" type="xsd:decimal" /> <part name="product" type="typens:productType" /> <part name="startTime" type="xsd:dateTime" /> <part name="endTime" type="xsd:dateTime" /> <part name="weatherParameters" type="typens:weatherParametersType" /> </message> <message name=" SoilMoistureDataResponse "> <part name="dwmlOut" type="xsd:string" /> </message> <service name=“criSoilMoisture"> <port name=“criXMLPort" binding="tns:criXMLBinding"> <soap:address location=" http://www.unt.edu/cri/xml/SOAP_server/criserver.php" /> </port> </service> </definitions>

  33. Overview • Data Transmission and Storage • Database Design • DBMS • Database Schema Design • Data Presentation • Traditional Web Interface • Virtual Earth / Google Map • Data Exchange • XML Derivatives • SensorML/O&M • Web Services • Sensor Web Enablement (SWE)

  34. Heterogeneous sensor network Airborne Satellite Decision Support Tools In-Situ monitors Bio/Chem/Rad Detectors Surveillance • sparse • disparate • mobile/in-situ • extensible Sensor Web Enablement • discovery • access • tasking • alert notification • web services and encodings based on Open Standards • (OGC, ISO, OASIS, IEEE) Models and Simulations • vendor neutral • extensive • - flexible • adaptable • nested • national, regional, urban • adaptable • data assimilation Sensor Web Enablement* * vast.uah.edu/SensorML/presentations/SWE_SensorML_Botts.ppt

  35. SWE Services • SOS (Sensor Observation Services) • Formerly SCS • fetch observations • Response to queries • WNS (Web Notification Services) • asynchronous notification of sensor events • two-way • SPS (Sensor Planning Services)

  36. SWE Deployment • Database (Spatial Database Preferred) • Intermediate Program(Middleware) • that converts sensor schema and readings to SensorML/O&M • javabeans etc, • XML Parser • SAX etc. • SOAP Toolkit • Apache soap toolkit etc.

  37. Thank you!