Universidad de Puerto Rico en Carolinachildren with Autism in Puerto Rico Carmen Valentin 845.09.8856 Karina L. Diaz 845-09-2328 Prof. Jorge Figueroa
Introduction • Autism is a chronic, non progressive developmental disorder. Children and adults with autism can show any kind of these set of unique symptoms in three areas: interaction with others, communication, and behavior in any degree of severity. Two children, both with the same diagnosis, can act completely different from one another . Knowledge and awareness about children with Autism is low among the general public. It’s very important to show the importance of autistic children to the people so they learn that they could have a normal life just like ours; of course they will have difficulties but the can get a progress. Many people could think that autistic children just rock back and forward all day but that’s not true. They like to play just like every kid does.
Literature Review • Weaker performance of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorderYounger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders do not perform as well on tests of social and communication development compared with siblings of children without developmental problems at ages as young as 12 months, according to a report in the April issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, a theme issue on autism spectrum disorders.Studies of twins and families indicate that autism and related disorders have a genetic basis, according to background information in the article. This includes milder conditions known as the "broader autism phenotype," consisting of traits that are similar to those associated with autism but are not severe enough to cause disability.
Feeding Problems among Children with Autism: The Impact of Parent Education in Modifying Aberrant Eating Habits • William G. Sharp, Ph.D.David L. Jaquess, Ph.D. • The Marcus Autism CenterThe purpose of the current study is to investigate the topography and treatment of feeding difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We propose to: (a) assess the types of feeding difficulties exhibited by children with ASD, as well as the effect that these difficulties have on a child’s nutritional status and family functioning; and to, (b) evaluate the impact of a parent-education intervention targeting problematic feeding behavior and related sequelae among children with ASD. Previous intervention studies aimed at addressing the mealtime difficulties exhibited by children with ASD have focused exclusively on intensive feeding interventions and there is no research investigating the efficacy of parent directed feeding therapy. This study seeks to test whether it is possible to extend the benefits of therapist-mediated behavioral feeding interventions to parents of children with ASD. Through this process, a set of comprehensive educational resources will be evaluated, which will provide practitioners and parents with a caregiver-driven level of intervention involving educational handouts and didactic training. Research in this area is critically important, as children with ASD display high rates of atypical feeding behavior resulting in significant nutritional deficits and medical issues. Research is needed to focus on direct observation of mealtime behavior and the impact that parent training may have on ameliorating feeding related difficulties, as it will provide a more comprehensive picture of the feeding difficulties exhibited by children with ASD and their treatment. By examining the degree to which caregivers who receive low-intensity training can effectively implement behavioral strategies targeting food selectivity and refusal, this line of research will help shape the type of services available to children with ASD exhibiting mealtime difficulties.
What is a Quantitative Methodology • Quantitative research is the systematic scientific investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. • The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to natural phenomena. • The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships.
Data Analysis • People are not well informed about Autistic Children. They have poor knowledge about what is Autism but still some has consideration of the hard work parents do with their Autistic child.
What is Autism? • Autism is a complex genetic disorder thought to be caused by one or more genes, either acting alone or together with other factors. Through the Medical Genetics collaborative research study into the hereditary basis of autism, we hope to find the gene(s) that leads to autism. Finding these gene(s) will provide valuable insight into how the disorder is caused and will hopefully lead to improved diagnostic and treatment modalities.<http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer>
Can Autism Be Inherited? • Autism has many causes so its complicated to answer that question .Some people may have a genetic form of autism. Several inherited disorders are associated with autistic-like behavior. When a diagnosis of autistic disorder is made by a health care provider, it is important to determine if the behavior is the result of one of these well known genetic disorders • In most of the cases, there is not an specific cause for autism in a person. Now, the autism is said to be idiopathic. That means that the behavior is secondary to an unknown cause. • It is a fact that more males have autism than females, researchers believed that autism might be associated with a non-working gene on the X chromosome. Recent data have shown that it is unlikely that a gene on the X chromosome causes the majority of cases of autism.
Children with Autism • A lot of people don't know this, but you can have a child with autism that can speak perfectly. This is a disorder that leads to communication issues, but that doesn't mean they're going to have a problem with the way they speak. Often it is what they say that shows the signs of autism. It is quite common for a child to repeat the same phrase over and over again. They may have heard it said in a previous conversation or television, but they'll repeat all the time. This sort of shows the repetitive behaviors that come out due to autism.< http://www.articlesbase.com/diseases-and-conditions-articles/autism-behavior-in-children-596627.html> Autistic children typically have problems interacting with other people. This leads some parents and professionals to think that they are naturally antisocial. Autistic children, if allowed to interact with other autistic kids, develop a strong relationship. Thecause of autistic social problems is not that autistic children are antisocial. It is that they are social in their own way. Two autistic people who are fit for each other have a certain rule or rules just like normal people. Some are incompatible like when two persons can’t get along for a certain reason.
Some of the autistic kids have the habit of talking too much. They will not stop unless you interrupt them. Though many autistic children interrupt each other to communicate that they want the other person to stop, as this is the only way they can get a word in. In fact, sometimes autistic children are incapable of stopping their thoughts and by stopping them, you are doing them a favor. There are several programs that one can use to change the wrong behavior of an autistic child. Most of them are based on the training of the child to act in a more appropriate way when in society. Temper tantrums should be fought as soon as they appear in the child, mostly by using a special holding technique on the child. Leaving the child untreated may lid to severe complications. Symptoms must be fought as soon as they appear; if not wild and impulsive behavior may affect the autistic kid. The most common mistake done today is that the whole family around the child, changes its behavior instead of the other way around. All the family members should participate in restraining all the bad and negative behavior signs of the child, when ever this are present. Temper tantrums should always try to be avoided as much as possible. Letting the kids act wildly and not restraining them when this should be done will only postpone and aggravate the level that the tantrum is going to have.
The participation of the government in the Autistic community • Although there arenoofficial statistics, it is estimated that currently there is a population of 7,000 autistic children who need health services. • A legislative proposal to impose a mandate that the government provide medical cover and other professionals to aid people with autism may be approved by mid-month in the House of Representatives, said the president of the body, Jenniffer Gonzalez. The initiative, which promotes cameral leader arises from a proposal by the representative Elizabeth Married to establish public policy on the treatment of autistic people should receive on the island The measure was presented • Specifically, the 1322 bill provides that "the government should develop public strategies to promote research, development, identification and provision of services to the population." It also proposes to create a center for early intervention services . To achieve the purpose, the Department of Health should establish an interdisciplinary team including psychological services, occupational therapy, speech therapy and even coordination of services, according to House Speaker. "This bill provides also for those organizations and the Government can establish partnerships for service delivery. After presenting the proposal, the House Speaker promised speed in dealing with this project, once started the legislative session on Aug. 17. However, to be approved must ensure the favor of Senators and obtain the signature of Governor Luis Fortuño. “The efforts are always aimed at achieving results. The House of Representatives shall act expeditiously, but with responsibility for approving this measure and thus respond to the demands of citizens and families who seek the future welfare of their children, "the leading statesman. • In Puerto Rico there are no statistics on the incidence of autism. It is believed that each year 400 children are born with this condition and that there is now a population of about 7,000 children who need services, according to estimates obtained from the Department of Education statistics.
Conclusion • Autistic children are difficult to handle. Its difficult to live with a child with autism knowing that the government its not actually interested in them. Here in Puerto Rico they don’t receive the help their supposed to. That’s why parents that have children with autism preferred to take their child to the USA because there are the opportunities they need. • Also people are not well informed about autistic children. People may know the condition exists and that is not easy but they really don’t have he knowledge about how severe it is. It’s a shame that here are so poor on this kind of condition and that the organizations almost have to beg for help.
References • < http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer> • http://www.autism-pdd.net> • .< http://www.articlesbase.com/diseases-and-conditions-articles/autism-behavior-in-children-596627.html>