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Traffic Psychology, Road Safety, and Health: The Decade of Action. The United Nations: Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-2020).

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the united nations decade of action for road safety 2011 2020
The United Nations: Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-2020)
  • “The Decade of Action for Road Safety can help all countries drive along the path to a more secure future…Today, partners around the world are releasing national or citywide plans for the Decade…Together, we can save millions of lives.”
  • UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
road safety statistics
Road Safety Statistics

1.2 million die in road traffic crashes each year

Approximately 50 million are injured or disabled by collisions each year

Every day 3,500 die in a road crash

Speed contributes to at least 30% of crashes and deaths

For every 1 km/hr reduction in average speed, there’s a 2% reduction in crashes

World Health Organization (2005)

The United Nations has declared 2011-2020 as the Decade of Action for Road Safety

road safety statistics1
Road Safety Statistics
  • 90% of road casulties are from developing countries
  • 1.9 million road deaths forecast for 2020
  • Traffic injuries are the #1 cause of death for young people worldwide
  • Economic cost to developing countries approx. $100 billion/yr.
  • By 2015, traffic injuries will be the leading health burden for children over 5 yrs.
slide8

Public Health Agency of Canada (2012). Injury in review: Spotlight on road and transport safety, 2012 Edition. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada.

slide9

Public Health Agency of Canada (2012). Injury in review: Spotlight on road and transport safety, 2012 Edition. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada.

slide11

Public Health Agency of Canada (2012). Injury in review: Spotlight on road and transport safety, 2012 Edition. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada.

slide12

Public Health Agency of Canada (2012). Injury in review: Spotlight on road and transport safety, 2012 Edition. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada.

what is traffic psychology
What is traffic psychology?
  • Definition: the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour (Rothengatter, 1997).
  • There is no single theoretical framework for the field, but rather several competing models, many of which are drawn from social psychology (e.g., Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour, driver stress, the General Aggression Model, risk compensation, personality theory etc.
  • Glendon (2011) identified 174 theories, conceptual frameworks, or models with a psychological component in his review.

Source: Rothengatter, T. (1997). Psychological aspects of road user behavior. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 223-234.

traffic psychology s roots
Traffic Psychology’s Roots

Ergonomics/human factors

Cognitive psychology

Clinical psychology

Social psychology

Personality psychology

Environmental psychology

Perceptual processes

Behavior modification

Epidemiology

a large proportion of vehicle crashes are attributable to behavioral issues
A Large Proportion of Vehicle Crashes are Attributable to Behavioral Issues

Distraction

Aggression

Vision & Perceptual errors

Perception of risk

Fatigue/sleep deprivation

Drug & alcohol consumption

Inadequate training

And the list goes on…and on…

issues for psychology s involvement
Issues for Psychology’s Involvement

Alcohol

Drugs/OTC medications

Aggressive driving/attributional processes

Driver education

Driver assessment/licencing

Sleep/fatigue

Aging

Young drivers

Media influences

Way-finding

Program evaluation

Anger management

Risky drivers (street racing/stunt driving)

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Rehabilitation programs

Stress reduction

Medical conditions & fitness to drive

Distraction

Risk perception & risk evaluation

Development of assessment tools

Informatics in vehicles

Bicycles,motorcycles,pedestrians (VRUs)

journals
Journals

Accident Analysis and Prevention

Transportation Research, Part F

Journal of Safety Research

Human Factors

Ergonomics

Safety Science

Applied Ergonomics

Personality and Individual Differences

Work and Stress

Basic and Applied Social Psychology

Aggressive Behavior

Violence and Victims

slide20
Canadian Association of Road Safety Professionals (CARSP)

International Association of Applied Psychology (Division 13: Traffic and Transportation Psychology)

Professional Organizations

behaviours that could be studied on roadways
Behaviours that could be studied on roadways:

Prosocial behaviours (helping, courtesy, cooperation, etc.)

Anti-social behaviours (aggression, violence, vengeance, etc.)

Social influence processes (conformity, modelling, norm formation, etc.)

Deindividuation

Cognitive processes (attention, distraction, workload)

Perceptual processes

Wayfinding & route learning

Stress and coping

aggressive driving interventions
Aggressive Driving: Interventions

Technological Solutions:

Radar cameras recording licence plate data

Sending e-mail/texting to other drivers who registered to receive these communications from other motorists

Speed camera lotteries awarding cash prizes to those drivers recorded driving below the speed limit.

Contacting police via cell phones

Signs in automobiles that communciate apologies for driving errors

Source: Wiesenthal, D. L., Lustman, M., & Roseborough, J. (In press). Aggressive driving: Current perspectives in theory and research. In A. Smiley (Ed.), Human factors in traffic safety (3rd edition). Tucson, AZ: Lawyers & Judges Publishing Co.

aggressive driving interventions1
Aggressive Driving: Interventions

Psychological Strategies

Cognitive behavior therapy for drivers diagnosed with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (DSM) through court orders

Feedback from passengers

Music listening

Deep breathing relaxation therapy

Source: Wiesenthal, D. L., Lustman, M., & Roseborough, J. (In press). Aggressive driving: Current perspectives in theory and research. In A. Smiley (Ed.), Human factors in traffic safety (3rd edition). Tucson, AZ: Lawyers & Judges Publishing Co.

aggressive driving interventions2
Aggressive Driving: Interventions
  • Legislation aimed at specific offences (e.g., stunt driving, street racing, burnouts)
  • Increased police apprehension of speeding, distracted drivers, drinking drivers, etc.
  • Media campaigns against drinking driving, Australian pinky wiggling commercials, etc.
  • Promotion of mass transportation.
  • Prohibiting dangerous driving depictions in television commercials

Source: Wiesenthal, D. L., Lustman, M., & Roseborough, J. (In press). Aggressive driving: Current perspectives in theory and research. In A. Smiley (Ed.), Human factors in traffic safety (3rd edition). Tucson, AZ: Lawyers & Judges Publishing Co.

what is an accident
What is an “accident”?

An unforeseen an unplanned event or circumstance.

An unfortunate event resulting especially from carelessness or ignorance.

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary

conceptualizing accidents
Conceptualizing “Accidents”

Accidents don’t just happen

Determinism versus fatalism: determinism is the scientific belief that events have a cause. Fatalism is the belief that mishaps are predestined by fate or supernatural forces

victim blaming
Victim Blaming

Bad drivers cause accidents.

Stems from the belief that good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people.

slide28

OUTCOME:

Safe Trip

Or

Mishap

Driver

Vehicle

Environment

slide29

We often focus on only one aspect of this trinity, while ignoring the others, along with the complexity of their interrelationships.

slide30

Road safety

management

Safer roads & mobility

Safer vehicles

Five Pillars of Road Safety

Safer road users

Post-crash response

conceptualizing driving
Conceptualizing Driving

Human-machine system

Social system

Human-environment system

Environment-vehicle system

Competitive activity

Recreational activity

Expressive activity

Instrumental activity

a useful way to conceptualize road safety is the journalist s 5 ws and and an h
A useful way to conceptualize road safety is the journalist’s 5 Ws and and an H

Who (driver)

What (vehicle)

Where (environment)

When (time)

Why (risk factors)

How (description/analysis of the mishap)

slide34
Who

Age

Gender

Previous driving offences

History of criminal offences

Frequency of driving

Driving licence classification

Stress level

Mood state

Learning history

slide35
What

Vehicle type

Safety features of vehicle

Mechanical fitness of vehicle

Quality of lighting

where
Where

Location of mishap

Type of roadway

Quality/Clarity of signage

Quality of road maintenance

Presence of obstacles on roadway

slide37
When

Weather conditions

Season

Time of day

Day of week

Driver’s circadian rhythm

slide38
Why

Driver inexperience

Driver inattention/distraction

Aggressive/vengeful driving

Alcohol/drug involvement

Poor visibility

Attempt to avoid road hazard

Excessive speed

Failure to signal intentions

Density of traffic may trigger antisocial behaviours

slide39
How

Description/analysis of mishap

Reconstruction of mishap

Role of simulation