Pronouns Subject Object Possessive Reflexive Comparisons
What is a pronoun? A pronoun is a type of word that takes the place of a noun. For example: Lee Ann and Marcus study together. They learn the material much better by quizzing one another on it. “They”took the place of “Lee Ann and Marcus”
Why use pronouns? • Pronouns are used in writing and speech as a way of keeping the flow of the words smooth by reducing repeated use of the full subject or object word. • The next slide contains a paragraph without pronouns—note how tedious writing and speech can become…
Why use pronouns? Lee Ann and Marcus study together. Lee Ann and Marcus learn the material much better by quizzing one another on it. When the teacher noticed how Lee Ann and Marcus had improved Lee Ann’s and Marcus’s grades, the teacher asked Lee Ann and Marcus what strategy Lee Ann and Marcus used. Lee Ann and Marcus explained how Lee Ann and Marcus devised a quizzing method that really helped Lee Ann and Marcus understand the material better. • (did you actually read all that? Too many uses of “Lee Ann and Marcus”!)
Using Pronouns • Whenever you use a pronoun, you need a NOUN that the pronoun refers to. The NOUN can appear in a sentence before the pronoun is used. • Pronouns cannot be used without first mentioning the nounthey are meant to replace. • For example: “They say that bananas are the perfect food.” They? Who is that? We don’t know! Could “they” = monkeys? Maybe!
These notes will review 5 different uses for pronouns: Subject pronouns Object pronouns Possessive pronouns Reflexive pronouns Comparisons with pronouns
1. Subject Pronouns Used as the subject of a sentence.
I You He, she, it Who We You (plural) They Subject pronounsUsed with the verb in a sentence:
Subject pronouns:used with the verb • IKen andIwent home. • youYoudrive very well. • he/she/it Hewon the game. Shefell asleep. It is lost.
Subject pronouns:used with the verb • weWeenjoyed the movie. • theyThey usually meet here. • whoWhoatethe last cookie? I don’t know whoate the last cookie.
Subject pronouns:whovs.whom • Q:When should I use “who”vs.“whom”? • A: “Who” is asubjectand is used with a verb.(see examples on the next slide)
Subject pronouns:whovs.whom • whoWhowrote this letter? I don’t know whowrote the letter. “whom” is an objectand can be found with prepositions such as “to, for, from, about” etc… To whomwas the letter addressed?
2. Object Pronouns Frequently used with prepositions
Me You Him, Her, It Whom Us You (plural) Them Object PronounsFrequently used with prepositions (For example: to, for, from, with, about, of…)
Object Pronouns • Me:Mary gave the list toJohn and me. (“gave it to I” does not sound correct) • You: This is foryou. • Her: Save some for Louis andher.(“save some for she” does not sound correct)
Object Pronouns • It: Pour water onit right away. • Us:Take a picture ofus. • Them:The book is aboutthem. it
Object Pronouns • Whom:Towhomdid you send the letter? • Aboutwhom was he speaking? • I don’t know whom to blame. • You don’t know whom the present is from.
3. Possessive Pronouns Used to show ownership
Possessive Pronouns To “possess” means to own or to have. Most of the time, when something belongs to someone, we use an apostrophe to show ownership: The boy’s hat Jane’s house
My, Mine Your, Yours His, Her/Hers, Its Whose Our, Ours Your, Yours Their, Theirs Possessive PronounsUsed to showownership
Possessive Pronouns But possessive pronouns automatically show ownership of something. They are already possessive!
Possessive Pronouns Therefore…
Possessive Pronouns NEVERneed apostrophes!
Possessive Pronouns • NO: • Our’s • Your’s • Her’s • Their’s
Possessive Pronouns • Bob hit my car. He did not realize the car was mine. My car!
Possessive Pronouns • Tina says she has your phone, but I thought yours was broken.
Possessive Pronouns • Lee organized her own files. No files are as neat as hers.
Possessive Pronouns • Everyone stays at our house. Visitors can easily recognize which house is ours. Our house!
Possessive Pronouns • Theirgrandmother was so confused that she did not know which house wastheirs. I can never find their house!
Possessive Pronouns • The teacher did not know whoseassignment was missing.
Possessive:its vs.it’s it’s = it is • Wrong:When I picked up the book, it’s cover came off. • Correct: When I picked up the book, its cover came off. • its= it owns something
Possessive:whosevs.who’s • who’s = who is • WRONG:Do you know who’s laptop this is? • CORRECT: Do you know whose laptop this is?
Mine Not mines or mine’s!
Mine • Use “mines” ONLY if you are describing one of the following: All of these mines have been closed. Many mines have been found here This mine’s main tunnel collapsed.
Possessive:minevs.mines • Usemine, notminestoshow possession
Possessive:minevs.mines • Yes: You can borrow mine. • Yes: That car is mine. • No: You can borrow mines. • No: That car is mines.
Reflexive Pronouns Used to "reflect" a subject noun or pronoun
Reflexive Pronouns • Myself • Yourself • Himself • Herself • Ourselves • Themselves
Reflexive Pronouns • Reflexive pronouns are used to refer to a previously stated subject in the sentence. • Example:The winner praised herself. She praised herself. You fixed it yourself.
Reflexive Pronouns NEVERuse a reflexive pronoun alone!
Reflexive Pronouns • WRONG:No one dances like myself. • CORRECT:I performed the dance myself. • WRONG:Myself and my friend have done that. • CORRECT:Idid that myself.
I….myself You…yourself. He…himself. Her…herself. It…itself. We…ourselves. You…yourselves. They…themselves. In order to use a reflexive, you must have a subject too! Reflexive PronounsSubject…reflexive
PHONY Pronouns: • hisself • theirself • theirselves • ourself • themself Don’t be fooled!
Comparisons • When you compare, you may use the word “than” • Better than… • Taller than… • Older than… • More qualified than…